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2010 Northern Metropolitan Region Principals Conference Mantra Erskine Beach Resort, Lorne, Victoria Tuesday 1 st June 2010 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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2010 Northern Metropolitan Region Principals Conference Mantra Erskine Beach Resort, Lorne, Victoria Tuesday 1 st June 2010. Powerful Learning and Teaching Professor David Hopkins. Being a relentless focus on improving the learning outcomes of

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2010 Northern Metropolitan Region Principals Conference Mantra Erskine Beach Resort, Lorne, Victoria Tuesday 1 st June 2010

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2010 Northern Metropolitan RegionPrincipals ConferenceMantra Erskine Beach Resort, Lorne, VictoriaTuesday 1st June 2010

Powerful Learning and Teaching

Professor David Hopkins

Being a relentless focus on improving the learning outcomes of

‘every student’ in ‘every school’ across the whole system …


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The whole point of schools is that children come first…

…and everything we do must reflect this single goal

“Students First”


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I know what my learning objectives are and feel in control of my learning

My parents are involved with the school and I feel I belong here

I can get a level 4 in English and Maths before I go to secondary school

I know if I need extra help or to be challenged to do better I will get the right support

I know what good work looks like and can help myself to learn

I get to learn lots of interesting and different subjects

I enjoy using ICT and know how it can help my learning

I can work well with and learn from many others as well as my teacher

I know how I am being assessed and what I need to do to improve my work

I can get the job that I want

Moral Purpose of Schooling

All these …. whatever my background, whatever my abilities, wherever I start from


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The Goal:

All our students will be

literate, numerate and curious.


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Powerful Learning …

Is the ability of learners to respond successfully to the tasks they are set, as well as the task they set themselves. In particular, to:

  • Integrate prior and new knowledge

  • Acquire and use a range of learning skills

  • Solve problems individually and in groups

  • Think carefully about their successes and failures

  • Accept that learning involves uncertainty and difficulty

    All this has been termed “meta-cognition” – it is the learners’ ability to take control over their own learning processes.


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100th percentile

90th percentile

Students with high performing teacher

53 percentile points

50th percentile

Students with low performing teacher

37th percentile

0 percentile

Age 11

Age 8

Effect Size of Teaching

McKinsey & Company, 2007:11

Student Performance


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Neuroscience

E5

Tools

Engage

Explore

Tactics

Powerful

Learning

Techniques

Explain

Brain Rules

Cognitive Principles

Elaborate

Models


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Cognitive Principles

Unless the cognitive conditions are right, we will avoid thinking

Cognition training in early years is fundamentally different from cognition training later in life

Factual knowledge must precede skill

Cognition training in early years is fundamentally different from cognition training later in life

Memory is the residue of thought

Children are more alike than different in terms of how they think and learn

We understand new things in the context of what we already know, and most of what we know is concrete

Children do differ in intelligence but intelligence can be improved through hard work

It is virtually impossible to become proficient at a mental task without extended practice


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Neuroscience

E5

Tools

Engage

Explore

Tactics

Powerful

Learning

Techniques

Explain

Brain Rules

Cognitive Principles

Elaborate

Models


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MUNRO

1. GETTING KNOWLEDGE READY

2. READ KEY WORDS/CONCEPTS/VOCABULARY

3.READ SHORT PORTIONS OF RELEVANT TEXT

4. PARAPHRASE

5. SAY QUESTIONS THE TEXT ANSWERS

6. SUMMARISE THE TEXT

7. REVIEW


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LEWIS


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Twelve Theory of Action Principles - 1

  • When the school commits to an inquiry oriented approach to pedagogy, then a higher level of learning (and engagement) is likely to occur.

  • When the level of expectation of student learning is clear and high and relationships respectful, then the students are more likely to be more independent, resourceful, collaborative risk takers.

  • When a school espouses or articulates an explicit theory of learning (scaffolding, HOTs ZPD…) then the level of student autonomy and depth in thinking increases.

  • When there is a strong sense of narrative about the lesson, then the pacing, student engagement and connection to the learning, are all enhanced.


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Twelve Theory of Action Principles - 2

  • When teachers exercise a high level of classroom management skill (closed questions, application of rules, equipment readily available, expected behaviours) then a more orderly environment ensues.

  • When the teacher is explicit about the learning objectives and summarises the outcomes, then students will have a stronger sense of learning and purpose.

  • When the teacher asks and persists in asking higher order questions, the level of student engagement and understanding deepens.

  • When learning groups are purposefully established (e.g. group skills are developed, group membership is differentiated, the learning tasks are clear and the teacher’s role clearly articulated), then the higher the level of engagement and outcome for all students.


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Twelve Theory of Action Principles - 3

  • When learning tasks are purposeful, clearly defined, differentiated and challenging, (according to the students Zone of Proximal Development), then the more powerful and precise the learning.

  • When teachers use cooperative group structures to mediate whole class instruction, then the engagement of all students increases.

  • When students have descriptors (criteria, assessment rubrics etc) about the outcomes expected then they are able to work more effectively and independently.

  • When positive reinforcement is concretely related to a particular aspect of student skill and learning behaviour then student performance is positively affected.


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Neuroscience

E5

Tools

Engage

Explore

Tactics

Powerful

Learning

Techniques

Explain

Brain Rules

Cognitive Principles

Elaborate

Models


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I wrote (with Bruce Joyce) some time ago that:

Learning experiences are composed of content, process and social climate.

As teachers we create for and with our children opportunities to explore and build important areas of knowledge, develop powerful tools for learning, and live in humanizing social conditions.


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Teaching Models

Our toolbox is the models of teaching, actually models for learning, that simultaneously define the nature of the content, the learning strategies, and the arrangements for social interaction that create the learning contexts of our students. For example, in powerful classrooms students learn models for:

  • Extracting information and ideas from lectures and presentations

  • Memorising information

  • Building hypotheses and theories

  • Using metaphors to think creatively

  • Working effectively with other to initiate and carry out co-operative tasks


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Reaching for the Double Sigma Effect

Number of students

Achievement of students


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Effect Size of Teaching Strategies

  • Information Processing – a mean effect size over 1.0 for higher order outcomes

  • Cooperative Learning – a mean effect between 0.3 to 0.7

  • Personal Models – a mean effect of 0.3 or more for cognitive, affective and behavioural outcomes

  • Behavioural Models – a mean effect between 0.5 to 1.0. Best representatives are for short term treatments looking at behavioural or knowledge of content outcomes


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Interactive Whole Class Model - Syntax

  • Phase One: Review

  • Phase Two: Presenting Information

  • Phase Three: Involving students in discussion

  • Phase Four: Engaging students in learning activities

  • Phase Five: Summary and review


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Mnemonics Model - Syntax

Phase 1: attending to the material

  • Use techniques of underlining, listing, reflecting.

    Phase 2: developing connections

  • Make material familiar and develop connections using key – word, substitute-word and link –word system techniques.

    Phase 3: expending sensory images

  • Use techniques of ridiculous associations and exaggerations. Revise images.

    Phase 4: practising recall

  • Practise recalling the material until it is completely learned.


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Inductive Model - Syntax


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Inductive Model - Syntax

  • Phase One: Identify the domain

  • Phase Two: Collect, present and enumerate data

  • Phase Three: Examine data

  • Phase Four: Form concepts by classifying

  • Phase Five: Generate and test hypotheses

  • Phase Six: Consolidate and transfer


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Synectics Model - Syntax

  • Phase One: Description of the Present Condition

  • Phase Two: Direct Analogy

  • Phase Three: Personal Analogy

  • Phase Four : Compressed Conflict

  • Phase Five: Direct Analogy

  • Phase Six: Re-examination of the Original Task


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Synectics Model - Syntax


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Cooperative Group Work Model - Syntax

  • Positive interdependence

  • Individual Accountability

  • Face-to-face interaction

  • Social skills

  • Processing


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Cooperative Group Work Model - Examples

  • Numbered Heads

  • Jigsaw

  • Twos to fours or snowballing

  • Rainbow groups

  • Envoys

  • Listening triads

  • Critical Friends


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Neuroscience

E5

Tools

Engage

Explore

Tactics

Powerful

Learning

Techniques

Elaborate

Explain

Brain Rules

Cognitive Principles

Models


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The Ring of Confidence

Circles of Competence


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The Experience of Educational Change

  • change takes place over time;

  • change initially involves anxiety and uncertainty;

  • technical and psychological support is crucial;

  • the learning of new skills is incremental and developmental;

  • successful change involves pressure and support within a collaborative setting;

  • organisational conditions within and in relation to the school make it more or less likely that the school improvement will occur.

    [Adapted from Michael Fullan – Change Processes paper, 1986]


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Joined up learning and teaching… in Schools

  • Make space and time for ‘deep learning’ and teacher enquiry

  • Use the research on learning and teaching to impact on student achievement

  • Studying classroom practice increases the focus on student learning

  • Invest in school-based processes such as coaching, for improving teacher’s pedagogical content knowledge

  • By working in small groups the whole school staff can become a nurturing unit


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Make space and time for ‘deep learning’ and teacher enquiry

  • Whole staff PD days on teaching and learning and school improvement planning as well as ‘curriculum tours’ to share the work done in departments or working groups;

  • Inter-departmental meetings to discuss teaching strategies;

  • Workshops run inside the school on teaching strategies by Cadre group members and external support;

  • Partnership teaching and peer coaching;

  • The design and execution of collaborative enquiry activities, which are, by their nature, knowledge-generating.


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  • Achieving Consistency

  • Specific Observation Schedules

  • Japanese ‘Lesson Study’

  • Coaching

  • Instructional Rounds

  • Peer Coaching


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In terms of teaching and learning, three residential courses were held for teachers in the first term of Paul’s headship, out of which emerged the staff-created model of the Robert Clack Good Lesson. Regardless of subject, all departments explain the objective, content and process of each lesson, followed by a summary and a review.

A modular curriculum was also introduced, whereby all pupils are tested to National Curriculum standards at each half and end of term in every subject. Not only do teachers know exactly where each pupil stands, but parents get a short and long report each term, which charts their children’s progress and behaviour.


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  • Higher order questions

  • Dealing with low level disruption

  • Wait time

  • Differentiation

  • Level of task

  • Pace

  • etc


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  • Choose a research theme

  • Focus the research

  • Create the lesson

  • Teach and observe the lesson

  • Discuss the lesson

  • Revise the lesson

  • Repeat the process with another teacher

  • Disseminate and share the lesson


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Coaching Models of Teaching

Workshop

  • Understanding of Key Ideas and Principles

  • Modelling and Demonstration

  • Practice in Non-threatening Situations

    Workplace

  • Immediate and Sustained Practice

  • Collaboration and Peer

  • Reflection and Action Research


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The Instructional Rounds Process

  • The network convenes in a school for a rounds visit hosted by a member or members of the network. The focus of the visit is a problem of practice related to teaching and learning that the school is currently wrestling with.

  • The network divides into smaller group that visit a rotation of four or five classrooms for approximately thirty minutes. In each classroom network participants collect descriptive evidence related to the focus of the problem of practice.

  • After completing the classroom observations, the entire group assembles in a common location to work through a process description, analysis and prediction. The group analyses the evidence for patterns and look at how what they have seen explains or not the observable student performance in the school.

  • Finally the network develops a series of ‘theory of action’ principles from the analysis of the observations and discusses the next level of work recommendations for the school and system to make progress on the problem of practice.


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Peer Coaching - Triads

  • Peer coaching teams of two or three are much more effective than larger groups.

  • These groups are more effective when the entire staff is engaged in school improvement.

  • Peer coaching works better when Heads and Deputies participate in training and practice.

  • The effects are greater when formative study of student learning is embedded in the process.


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Developing Professional Practice in your School – a sequence

  • Purpose, pace and narrative

  • Concrete reinforcement and high expectations

  • Co-operative group structures

  • Persistent higher order questions

  • Setting challenging tasks in the four ZPD zones

  • Scaffolding


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The Next Stage of the Work

  • Urgency and moral purpose – focusing on student learning

  • Alignment – policy and roles

  • Precision – in terms of teaching and school intervention

  • Leadership – at the three levels of RNLs, Principals and School Improvement Groups

  • Segmentation – the strategic use diversity to drive excellence

    All achieved through use of Adaptive Strategies – Instructional Rounds, Triads, Residency etc


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‘It is teachers who, in the end, will change the world of the school by understanding it.’

A quotation from Lawrence Stenhouse chosen by some teachers who had worked with him as an inscription for the memorial plaque in the grounds of the University of East Anglia.


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Professor David Hopkins


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