What is Soil?
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What is Soil?. “a living, dynamic system with organic and inorganic components. Soil is a product of its environment and parent material”. components. By volume: 45% mineral 5% organic material 50% space (air/water) By mass? 0% air 18% water 80% mineral 2% organic material.

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“a living, dynamic system with organic and inorganic components. Soil is a product of its environment and parent material”.


Components
components components. Soil is a product of its environment and parent material”.

By volume:

  • 45% mineral

  • 5% organic material

  • 50% space (air/water)

    By mass?

  • 0% air

  • 18% water

  • 80% mineral

  • 2% organic material


1 the mineral component
1. components. Soil is a product of its environment and parent material”.The mineral component

  • inorganic

  • “mineral”: definition?

    • Primary: original components of earth crust

    • Secondary: new minerals made by weathering of earth’s crust

  • divided by particle size:

    • Sand, silt, clay


  • mineral make-up due to: components. Soil is a product of its environment and parent material”.

    a. Parent Material

    b. How resistant minerals are

    c. Climate

    d. “Age”


A parent material
a. parent material components. Soil is a product of its environment and parent material”.

material on and in which soil develops



2 boundary waters
2. Boundary Waters material: 1. Apostle Islands



Regolith bedrock weathered rock
Regolith/bedrock: material: 1. Apostle Islandsweathered rock


Alluvium deposits on a flood plain from a river
Alluvium: material: 1. Apostle Islandsdeposits on a flood plain from a river


Marine deposits shell reef and other bits formerly at bottom of ocean that have been uplifted
Marine deposits: material: 1. Apostle Islandsshell, reef and other “bits” formerly at bottom of ocean that have been uplifted


Lacustrine deposits: material: 1. Apostle Islandsclay deposits originally laid down at the bottom of a lake; lake is no longer there


Example glacial lakes in mn
Example: glacial lakes in MN material: 1. Apostle Islands


Till unconsolidated material deposited by glacial ice
Till: material: 1. Apostle Islandsunconsolidated material deposited by glacial ice


Outwash unconsolidated sorted material deposited by meltwater from a glacier
Outwash: material: 1. Apostle Islandsunconsolidated, sorted material deposited by meltwater from a glacier


Organic sediments peat
Organic sediments: peat material: 1. Apostle Islands


Volcanic ash
Volcanic ash material: 1. Apostle Islands


Loess deep deposits of silt that have been deposited by wind
Loess: material: 1. Apostle Islandsdeep deposits of silt that have been deposited by wind


Sand beach sand dune sand
Sand: material: 1. Apostle Islandsbeach sand, dune sand


Colluvium material that moved downslope as in a landslide
Colluvium; material: 1. Apostle Islandsmaterial that moved downslope, as in a landslide


  • mineral make-up due to: material: 1. Apostle Islands

    a. Parent Material

    b. How resistant minerals are

    c. Climate

    d. Age


B resistance of minerals
b. resistance of minerals material: 1. Apostle Islands

  • Soluble minerals are readily LEACHED from soil profile (Ca,Mg,Na)

  • Certain minerals tend to accumulate in soil

    • (oxides of Fe, Al, Si)


  • mineral make-up due to: material: 1. Apostle Islands

    a. Parent Material

    b. How resistant minerals are

    c. Climate

    d. Age


C climate
c. Climate material: 1. Apostle Islands

  • Amount of leaching

  • Rate of weathering


  • mineral make-up due to: material: 1. Apostle Islands

    a. Parent Material

    b. How resistant minerals are

    c. Climate

    d. Age


D age
d. Age material: 1. Apostle Islands

  • Parent material is (usually) less influential in “older” (more highly developed) soil


2 organic component
2. Organic Component material: 1. Apostle Islands

  • Living (primarily decomposers)

  • Non-living (dead and all in-between stages of decomposition)


About decomposers
…about decomposers: material: 1. Apostle Islands

  • Nutrient recycling

  • Respiration


Decomposer activity depends on
decomposer activity depends on: material: 1. Apostle Islands

climate

soil moisture conditions

Micro-environmental factors (relief, drainage)


Decomposers and climate
decomposers and material: 1. Apostle Islandsclimate:

1) climate vegetation, litter (amount, type)

2) rate of decomposition

hot,wet >> cold, dry


Soil moisture conditions
soil moisture conditions material: 1. Apostle Islands

  • Hot, wet preference of decomposers


Micro environmental factors relief drainage
micro-environmental factors material: 1. Apostle Islands (relief, drainage)

  • Slope aspect affects temperature

  • Drainage affects anaerobic/aerobic decomposition


3 the space component
3. The Space component material: 1. Apostle Islands

  • Soil pores

    • filled with air and/or water


A soil air
A. soil air material: 1. Apostle Islands

O2 CO2 N2 H 2O vapor (per cents by volume)(rh)

Above-ground atm. 20.97 0.03 79.0 <100%

Soil (grassland) atm. 18.4 1.6 79.2 100 %


B soil water
B. soil water material: 1. Apostle Islands

  • Functions?

  • Polar molecule


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