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Starter:. What is the density of a cube with a side length of 3 cm and a mass of 27 grams?. Starter:. What is the density of a cube with a side length of 3 cm and a mass of 27 grams? length = 3 cm, lxwxh = Volume, which equals? Mass = 3 grams. Starter:.

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Starter:
• What is the density of a cube with a side length of 3 cm and a mass of 27 grams?
Starter:
• What is the density of a cube with a side length of 3 cm and a mass of 27 grams?
• length = 3 cm, lxwxh = Volume, which equals?
• Mass = 3 grams
Starter:
• What is the density of a cube with a side length of 3 cm and a mass of 27 grams?
• length = 3 cm, lxwxh = Volume, which equals 27 cm³
• Mass = 27 grams
• Density = mass divided by volume = 1 g/cm³

### Minerals

Practice notes

Minerals: From the Inside Out
• Minerals are the building blocks that make up rocks
• There are about 3000 known minerals.
Answer These Questions
• To be a mineral, all of the following questions must be answered “yes”:
• Is it nonliving material? A mineral is inorganic.
• Is it formed in nature? Only naturally made crystals are classified as minerals.
• Does it have a crystalline structure (repeating inner structure that determines shape)?
• Is it a solid? No gases or liquids allowed.
Two Groups of Minerals
• Minerals are divided into two groups based on chemical makeup:
• Silicate minerals – contain silicon & oxygen, with additional elements; make up more than 90% of Earth’s crust.
• Nonsilicate minerals - no silicon or oxygen but C, O, Fe, S (carbonates – calcite, halides – fluorite, oxides – corundum, sulfates - gypsum
Silicate Minerals

Quartz

Feldspar

Mica

All silicate minerals contain the elements silicon and oxygen.

Nonsilicate Minerals

CALCITE

FLUORITE

Nonsilicate Minerals

CORUNDUM

GYPSUM

Identifying Minerals
• 1. Color
• Impurities can change color (quartz vs. amethyst)
• Air and water can also change color of mineral (pyrite is golden, but exposure turns it black)
Color

Quartz and amethyst are both silicon dioxide (SiO₂) but amethyst contains impurities which gives it its purple color.

Identifying Minerals (cont.)
• 2. Luster
• How the surface of a mineral reflects light.
• Controlled by how atoms are bonded
• Metallic, submetallic, nonmetallic (vitreous, silky, resinous, waxy, pearly, earthy)
Identifying Minerals (cont.)
• 3. Streak
• Color of mineral in powdered form
• Not always the same color of mineral sample
• More reliable than color of mineral

Hematite may vary in color but the streak will always be reddish brown.

Identifying Minerals (cont.)
• Cleavage and Fracture
• How mineral breaks, determined by atomic arrangement
• 4. Cleavage– tendency to break along flat surfaces (mica, halite) because bonding is weakest in those directions.
• 5. Fracture – tendency to break along curved or irregular surfaces (quartz – conchoidal) when bonding is equally strong in all directions.
Identifying Minerals (cont.)
• 6. Hardness
• Resistance to being scratched
• Mohs hardness scale:

Talc, Gypsum, Calcite, Fluorite, Apatite, Orthoclase, Quartz, Topaz, Corundum, Diamond

Hardness Scratch Test
• < 2.5 = Mineral marks paper
• 2.5 = Fingernail
• 3 = Copper Penny
• 5 = Steel knife blade
• 6 = Plate of glass
• 6.5 = Steel file
Identifying Minerals (cont.)
• 7. Density
• How much matter there is in a given amount of space (D = m/v) (g/ cm³)
Identifying Minerals (cont.)
• 8. Special Properties
• Fluorescence (calcite, fluorite glow under UV)
• Chemical reactions (calcite)
• Optical – calcite causes double images
• Taste – halite
• Magnetism – magnetic, pyrrhotite attract iron
• Radioactivity – minerals containing radium or uranium can be detected with a Geiger counter.

### Elements and compounds

Element- A substance that cannot be broken into simpler substances by chemical means. Found on the periodic table.

Compound- A substance made of two or more different atoms that are chemically bonded.

Application:
• Vocabulary foldable
Connection: Lab
• Exit: in 3-5 sentences How would you describe the mineral that represents your birthday month, using the vocabulary from today’s lesson?