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Starter:. What is the density of a cube with a side length of 3 cm and a mass of 27 grams?. Starter:. What is the density of a cube with a side length of 3 cm and a mass of 27 grams? length = 3 cm, lxwxh = Volume, which equals? Mass = 3 grams. Starter:.

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Starter:

  • What is the density of a cube with a side length of 3 cm and a mass of 27 grams?


Starter:

  • What is the density of a cube with a side length of 3 cm and a mass of 27 grams?

  • length = 3 cm, lxwxh = Volume, which equals?

  • Mass = 3 grams


Starter:

  • What is the density of a cube with a side length of 3 cm and a mass of 27 grams?

  • length = 3 cm, lxwxh = Volume, which equals 27 cm³

  • Mass = 27 grams

  • Density = mass divided by volume = 1 g/cm³


Minerals

Practice notes


Minerals: From the Inside Out

  • Minerals are the building blocks that make up rocks

  • There are about 3000 known minerals.


Answer These Questions

  • To be a mineral, all of the following questions must be answered “yes”:

  • Is it nonliving material? A mineral is inorganic.

  • Is it formed in nature? Only naturally made crystals are classified as minerals.

  • Does it have a crystalline structure (repeating inner structure that determines shape)?

  • Is it a solid? No gases or liquids allowed.


Two Groups of Minerals

  • Minerals are divided into two groups based on chemical makeup:

  • Silicate minerals – contain silicon & oxygen, with additional elements; make up more than 90% of Earth’s crust.

  • Nonsilicate minerals - no silicon or oxygen but C, O, Fe, S (carbonates – calcite, halides – fluorite, oxides – corundum, sulfates - gypsum


Silicate Minerals

Quartz

Feldspar

Mica

All silicate minerals contain the elements silicon and oxygen.


Nonsilicate Minerals

CALCITE

FLUORITE


Nonsilicate Minerals

CORUNDUM

GYPSUM


Identifying Minerals

  • 1. Color

    • Impurities can change color (quartz vs. amethyst)

    • Air and water can also change color of mineral (pyrite is golden, but exposure turns it black)


Color

Quartz and amethyst are both silicon dioxide (SiO₂) but amethyst contains impurities which gives it its purple color.


Identifying Minerals (cont.)

  • 2. Luster

    • How the surface of a mineral reflects light.

    • Controlled by how atoms are bonded

    • Metallic, submetallic, nonmetallic (vitreous, silky, resinous, waxy, pearly, earthy)


Luster


Luster


Identifying Minerals (cont.)

  • 3. Streak

    • Color of mineral in powdered form

    • Not always the same color of mineral sample

    • More reliable than color of mineral

Hematite may vary in color but the streak will always be reddish brown.


Identifying Minerals (cont.)

  • Cleavage and Fracture

    • How mineral breaks, determined by atomic arrangement

      • 4. Cleavage– tendency to break along flat surfaces (mica, halite) because bonding is weakest in those directions.

      • 5. Fracture – tendency to break along curved or irregular surfaces (quartz – conchoidal) when bonding is equally strong in all directions.


Identifying Minerals (cont.)

  • 6. Hardness

    • Resistance to being scratched

    • Mohs hardness scale:

      Talc, Gypsum, Calcite, Fluorite, Apatite, Orthoclase, Quartz, Topaz, Corundum, Diamond


Hardness Scratch Test

  • < 2.5 = Mineral marks paper

  • 2.5 = Fingernail

  • 3 = Copper Penny

  • 5 = Steel knife blade

  • 6 = Plate of glass

  • 6.5 = Steel file


Identifying Minerals (cont.)

  • 7. Density

    • How much matter there is in a given amount of space (D = m/v) (g/ cm³)


Identifying Minerals (cont.)

  • 8. Special Properties

    • Fluorescence (calcite, fluorite glow under UV)

    • Chemical reactions (calcite)

    • Optical – calcite causes double images

    • Taste – halite

    • Magnetism – magnetic, pyrrhotite attract iron

    • Radioactivity – minerals containing radium or uranium can be detected with a Geiger counter.


Elements and compounds

Element- A substance that cannot be broken into simpler substances by chemical means. Found on the periodic table.

Compound- A substance made of two or more different atoms that are chemically bonded.


Application:

  • Vocabulary foldable


Connection: Lab

  • Exit: in 3-5 sentences How would you describe the mineral that represents your birthday month, using the vocabulary from today’s lesson?


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