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Starter:. What is the density of a cube with a side length of 3 cm and a mass of 27 grams?. Starter:. What is the density of a cube with a side length of 3 cm and a mass of 27 grams? length = 3 cm, lxwxh = Volume, which equals? Mass = 3 grams. Starter:.

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Starter
Starter:

  • What is the density of a cube with a side length of 3 cm and a mass of 27 grams?


Starter1
Starter:

  • What is the density of a cube with a side length of 3 cm and a mass of 27 grams?

  • length = 3 cm, lxwxh = Volume, which equals?

  • Mass = 3 grams


Starter2
Starter:

  • What is the density of a cube with a side length of 3 cm and a mass of 27 grams?

  • length = 3 cm, lxwxh = Volume, which equals 27 cm³

  • Mass = 27 grams

  • Density = mass divided by volume = 1 g/cm³


Minerals

Minerals

Practice notes


Minerals from the inside out
Minerals: From the Inside Out

  • Minerals are the building blocks that make up rocks

  • There are about 3000 known minerals.


Answer these questions
Answer These Questions

  • To be a mineral, all of the following questions must be answered “yes”:

  • Is it nonliving material? A mineral is inorganic.

  • Is it formed in nature? Only naturally made crystals are classified as minerals.

  • Does it have a crystalline structure (repeating inner structure that determines shape)?

  • Is it a solid? No gases or liquids allowed.


Two groups of minerals
Two Groups of Minerals

  • Minerals are divided into two groups based on chemical makeup:

  • Silicate minerals – contain silicon & oxygen, with additional elements; make up more than 90% of Earth’s crust.

  • Nonsilicate minerals - no silicon or oxygen but C, O, Fe, S (carbonates – calcite, halides – fluorite, oxides – corundum, sulfates - gypsum


Silicate minerals
Silicate Minerals

Quartz

Feldspar

Mica

All silicate minerals contain the elements silicon and oxygen.


Nonsilicate minerals
Nonsilicate Minerals

CALCITE

FLUORITE


Nonsilicate minerals1
Nonsilicate Minerals

CORUNDUM

GYPSUM


Identifying minerals
Identifying Minerals

  • 1. Color

    • Impurities can change color (quartz vs. amethyst)

    • Air and water can also change color of mineral (pyrite is golden, but exposure turns it black)


Color
Color

Quartz and amethyst are both silicon dioxide (SiO₂) but amethyst contains impurities which gives it its purple color.


Identifying minerals cont
Identifying Minerals (cont.)

  • 2. Luster

    • How the surface of a mineral reflects light.

    • Controlled by how atoms are bonded

    • Metallic, submetallic, nonmetallic (vitreous, silky, resinous, waxy, pearly, earthy)




Identifying minerals cont1
Identifying Minerals (cont.)

  • 3. Streak

    • Color of mineral in powdered form

    • Not always the same color of mineral sample

    • More reliable than color of mineral

Hematite may vary in color but the streak will always be reddish brown.


Identifying minerals cont2
Identifying Minerals (cont.)

  • Cleavage and Fracture

    • How mineral breaks, determined by atomic arrangement

      • 4. Cleavage– tendency to break along flat surfaces (mica, halite) because bonding is weakest in those directions.

      • 5. Fracture – tendency to break along curved or irregular surfaces (quartz – conchoidal) when bonding is equally strong in all directions.


Identifying minerals cont3
Identifying Minerals (cont.)

  • 6. Hardness

    • Resistance to being scratched

    • Mohs hardness scale:

      Talc, Gypsum, Calcite, Fluorite, Apatite, Orthoclase, Quartz, Topaz, Corundum, Diamond


Hardness scratch test
Hardness Scratch Test

  • < 2.5 = Mineral marks paper

  • 2.5 = Fingernail

  • 3 = Copper Penny

  • 5 = Steel knife blade

  • 6 = Plate of glass

  • 6.5 = Steel file


Identifying minerals cont4
Identifying Minerals (cont.)

  • 7. Density

    • How much matter there is in a given amount of space (D = m/v) (g/ cm³)


Identifying minerals cont5
Identifying Minerals (cont.)

  • 8. Special Properties

    • Fluorescence (calcite, fluorite glow under UV)

    • Chemical reactions (calcite)

    • Optical – calcite causes double images

    • Taste – halite

    • Magnetism – magnetic, pyrrhotite attract iron

    • Radioactivity – minerals containing radium or uranium can be detected with a Geiger counter.


Elements and compounds

Elements and compounds

Element- A substance that cannot be broken into simpler substances by chemical means. Found on the periodic table.

Compound- A substance made of two or more different atoms that are chemically bonded.


Application
Application:

  • Vocabulary foldable


Connection lab
Connection: Lab

  • Exit: in 3-5 sentences How would you describe the mineral that represents your birthday month, using the vocabulary from today’s lesson?


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