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REMOTE ACCESS Lecture II. REMOTE ACCESS. Presented By:- Dr. Fred Zellner University Of Houston Central Computing and Telecommunication Services. REMOTE ACCESS. What Is It ? Accessing a network from a remote location Accessing the LAN from a remote location Accessing the Internet.

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Remote access lecture ii
REMOTE ACCESSLecture II

REMOTE ACCESS

Presented By:-

Dr. Fred Zellner

University Of Houston

Central Computing and Telecommunication Services

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


Remote access
REMOTE ACCESS

What Is It ?

Accessing a network from a remote location

  • Accessing the LAN from a remote location

  • Accessing the Internet

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


Remote access1
REMOTE ACCESS

WHY REMOTE ACCESS ?

  • E-Mail and File Transfers

  • Online transaction processing

  • Emphasis on telecommuting

  • Price reductions in portable systems

  • Competitive Pressures

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


Remote access2
REMOTE ACCESS

TYPES OF REMOTE ACCESS

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

REMOTE ACCESS USERS

HOME OFFICE

REMOTE ACCESS

SOHO

TRAVELLING

EMPLOYEE

OUTBOUND

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

FUTURE ARCHITECTURE

Data Management

SERVER

Application Logic

Remote Middleware

SATELLITE WIRELESS

WAN

ISDN ADSL MODEM CABLE MODEM

Remote Middleware

Data Management

MOBILE/

REMOTE

CLIENT

Application Logic

Presentation

Source:-Gartner Group

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

FEATURES OF THE ARCHITECTURE

  • STORE AND FORWARD

  • SINGLE SESSION COMMUNICATIONS

  • NETWORK INDEPENDENCE

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

BANDWIDTH DEMAND FORECAST

TOTAL DESIRED BANDWIDTH :- 528 Kbps

Source:-Gartner Group

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUES

  • GENERIC TECHNIQUES

  • LAN BASED TRAFFIC OPTIMIZATION

  • APPLICATION DRIVEN TECHNIQUES

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

GROWTH IN NUMBER OF REMOTE ACCESS USERS

No.of Users

(in Millions)

Source:Gartner Group

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

SUMMARY TILL NOW…

  • More than 32m remote users by 2000.

  • By 2001,Remote Access will be a necessity not a luxury.

  • Bandwidth requirement will shoot up.

  • By, 2001 new applications for Deferred Remote Access will be written.

  • By 2001, Remote Performance Optimization standards

    will come in place.

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

MODEM TECNOLOGY

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

DIAL UP MODEMS

TILL NOW….

Older Standards

V.32

V.32 bis

V.34

V.34+

33.6Kbps

V.34+

28.8Kbps

V.34

14.4Kbps

V.32bis

9600bps

V.32

300bps

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

DIAL UP MODEMS

WHAT NOW….

  • Kflex 56.(Motorola)

  • X 2(3Com)

56 Kbps

Kflex 56

X2

33.4 Kbps

V.34

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

THE 56K TECHNOLOGY

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

FEATURES OF THE 56K TECHNOLOGY

  • SERVICES OVER REGULAR PHONE LINES.

  • 100% DIGITAL NETWORK EXCEPT THE LOCAL LOOP.

  • DOWNLOADS FROM INTERNET,CORPORATE NETWORKS AT 56Kbps.

  • BACKWARD COMPATIBLE.

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

100% DIGITAL CONNECTION EXCEPT THE LOCAL LOOP.

ASYMMETRICAL CONNECTION.

UPSTREAM SPEED LIMITED DUE TO A/D CONVERSION.

USE “PAM” IN DOWNSTREAM AND “QAM” IN UPSTREAM.

OPTIMIZED FOR END TO END ANALOG CONNECTIONS.

SYMMETRICAL CONNECTION.

A/D CONVERSION TAKING PLACE AT BOTH ENDS HENCE LIMITING SPEED.

USES “QAM” IN BOTH DIRECTIONS.

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN 56K AND V.34 TECHNOLOGY

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

56K DIAL UP MODEM REQUIREMENTS

  • DIGITAL AT ONE END.

  • 56K TECHNOLOGY SUPPORT AT BOTH ENDS.

  • ONE ANALOG TO DIGITAL CONVERSION.

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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DEVELOPED BY ROCKWELL AND LUCENT.

DEVELOPED BY US ROBOTICS AND 3COM.

REMOTE ACCESS

THE 56K MODEM TECHNOLOGY SUPPLIERS

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

DISADVANTAGES OF 56K MODEMS

  • USEFUL ONLY FOR INTERNET DOWNLOADS.

  • NO STANDARDIZATION FROM ITU-IT.

  • NO VIDEOCONFERENCING AND MULTIMEDIA APPLICATIONS POSSIBLE.

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

CABLE MODEMS

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

WHAT IS CABLE MODEM TECHNOLOGY ?

  • HIGH SPEED DATA TRANSFER VIA THE BROADBAND CABLE TV NETWORK.

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

TYPICAL SCENARIO…..

COAXIAL

CABLE

TWISTED PAIR

SERIAL

CABLE

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

WITH CABLE MODEM TECHNOLOGY….

COAXIAL

CABLE

TWISTED PAIR

CABLE

MODEM

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

WHAT IS A CABLE MODEM ?

  • ACTS AS A BRIDGE, SPANNING THE CABLE MEDIA’S ACCESS PROTOCOL AND THE PC’S COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL.

  • OPERATES AT LAYER 1 AND LAYER 2.

  • HAS CONNECTORS FOR POWER,VIDEO F AND ETHERNET CONNECTOR.

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

CABLE TV PRIMER

  • COAXIAL CABLES:-330Mhz or 450MHz.

  • DOWNSTREAM VIDEO:-50Mhz-750Mhz.

  • UPSTREAM VIDEO:-5Mhz-42Mhz.

  • STANDARD TV CHANNEL OCCUPIES 6Mhz.

  • TRADITIONAL TV SYSTEM:-60 CHANNELS.

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

BANDWIDTH ALLOCATION ….

DOWNSTREAM

750Mhz

UPSTREAM

50Mhz

42Mhz

5Mhz

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

CABLE MODEM SPEEDS

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

CABLE MODEM SPEEDS

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

SERVICES PROVIDED BY CABLE MODEMS

  • INTERNET ACCESS

  • ELECTRONIC MAIL

  • REMOTE ACCESS TO CORPORATE LAN.

    Contd….

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

SERVICES……

  • INTEGRATED COMPUTER/TV ACCESS.

  • BANK AT HOME SERVICES.

  • HOME ENTERTAINMENT.

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

CABLE NETWORK

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

CABLE MODEM NETWORK:-AN EXAMPLE

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

EXPLANATION….

  • SuperHeadend:-Heart of the System

  • LCp:-Personal Cable Modem

  • LCw:-Workgroup Cable Modem.

  • LCb:-Multiuser Cable Modem.

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

CABLE MODEMS:--AVERAGE COST

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

BANDWIDTH COST COMPARISON

$/Kbps

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

1. Time Warner Cable 29,000

2. MediaOne 17,000 14,000

3. Cox Communications 16,000

4. Rogers Cablesystems 14,000

5. Comcast 5,800

6. Videotron 5,000

7. Shaw Communications 4,500

8. COGECO 4,000

9. Tele-Communications Inc. 2,400

10. Adelphia 2,000

11. Cablevision Systems 1,400

12. Jones Intercable 4,000

Other 4,000

TOTAL 111,100

CABLE MODEM SALES

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

CABLE MODEM--SUBSCRIBER PROJECTIONS

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

CABLE MODEMS:--UNIT SALES PROJECTIONS

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

DISADVANTAGES OF CABLE MODEMS

  • HUGE INVESTMENT BY MSO.

  • RELIABLE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM REQUIRED.

  • NO INTEROPERABILITY BETWEEN DIFFERENT MODEMS.

  • UPSTREAM SPEEDS NOT STANDARDIZED.

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

PRESENT SCENARIO

  • NO STANDARDS.

  • PRESENT CUSTOMERS ARE MSO’s.

  • NO SUPPLIERS TO PROVIDE END TO END SOLUTIONS.

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

CABLE MODEMS--FUTURE

  • STANDARDIZATION FOR DOWNSTREAM AND UPSTREAM SPEEDS.

  • INTEROPERABILITY BETWEEN DIFFERENT MODEMS.

  • REDUCTION IN COSTS.

  • CUSTOMERS WILL BE END USERS.

  • SUPPLIERS WITH END TO END SOLUTIONS.

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

ASYNCHRONOUS DIGITAL SUSCRIBER LINE

HIT THE HIGHWAY WITHOUT LEAVING HOME

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

WHAT IS ADSL ?

  • ASYNCHRONOUS DIGITAL SUBSCRIBER LINE--- A NEW MODEM TECHNOLOGY.

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

ADSL FEATURES

  • HIGH SPEED NETWORK ACCESSIBILITY.

  • HIGH SPEED REMOTE ACCESS.

  • VIDEO ON DEMAND.

  • CONSTANT CONNECTIVITY.

  • NO NEED TO ADD NEW PHONE LINES.

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

ADSL :- THE NETWORK

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

ADSL….SPEEDS

  • ADSL MODEMS CONSISTENT WITH EUROPEAN AND NORTH AMERICAN DIGITAL HIERARCHIES.

  • VARIABLE DATA RATES.

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

TECHNOLOGY DESCRIPTION…Requirements

  • FULL USE OF COPPER LINE FREQUENCY SPECTRUM(1.1Mhz).

  • ADVANCED CODING/DECODING METHOD.

  • ABILITY TO WORK WITH POTS ON SAME COPPER LINE.

  • AN EFFICIENT ERROR CORRECTION CODE.

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

TECHNOLOGIES USED BY ADSL

  • CODING:--DMT OR CAP

  • CODE AND ERROR CORRECTION

  • FRAMING AND SCRAMBLING

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

ADSL:--BANDWIDTH ALLOCATION

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

ADSL:--CODING SCHEMES

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

ADSL:--DMT CODING TECHNIQUE

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

ADVANTAGES OF DMT

  • BETTER PERFORMANCE

  • BIT RATE FLEXIBILITY

  • RESISTANCE TO IMPULSE NOISE

  • ATM SUPPORT

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

ADSL:--DISTANCE LIMITATIONS

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

ADSL PRODUCTS FROM COMPANIES

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

ADSL :-- WHAT IS NEEDED ?

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

ADSL PROVIDER IN HOUSTON

  • SOUTH WESTERN BELL

    TEST SITE:-SHELL

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

DIFFERENT xDSL

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

ADSL :-ISSUES TO BE RESOLVED

  • HIGH SPEED xDSL,WHICH ONE?

  • LAYER 1 CAP vs DMT

  • LAYER 2 ATM vs ETHERNET

  • LAYER 3 PPP OR NOT?

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

GSM

GLOBAL SYSTEM FOR MOBILE

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

OVERVIEW OF THE CELLULAR SYSTEM

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

OVERVIEW OF CELLULAR CONCEPT

  • HEXAGON GEOMETRY

  • EACH CELL HAS TRANSMITTER

  • FREQUENCY REUSE

  • HANDOFF

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

WHAT IS GSM ?

  • A Second Generation Cellular System.

  • First Digital Cellular System.

  • Supports mobile communications in the 900Mhz and 1.8Ghz range.

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

GSM:-SERVICES AVAILABLE NOW

  • TELESERVICES.

  • DATA SERVICES:Packet Switched Data at 300bps-9.6Kbps.

  • ISDN SERVICES.

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

GSM FUTURE

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

GSM-HSCSD

  • High Speed Circuit Switched Data.

  • Will boost user Capacity to 64Kbps.

  • Designed for existing Infrastructure.

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

GSM-GPRS

  • General Packet Radio Service

  • Suitable for Bursty nature data transmission.

  • Ideal for e-mail and Database access.

  • Cost effective.

  • Connectivity at 64Kbps.

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REMOTE ACCESS

SATELLITE / WIRELESS

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

SATELLITE BASICS

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

SATELLITE COMMUNICATION BANDS

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

Ka BAND SATELLITE PROJECTS

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

IRIDIUM LEO SATELLITE SYSTEM

  • Motorola’s Global Mobile Satellite Project.

  • Communication System for Voice,Data Fax and Paging.

  • 66 LEO Satellites.

  • Multiple Access Scheme:-FDMA/TDMA.

  • Frequency Band:-Ka Band(19.4-19.6Ghz for Downloads)

    Ka Band(29.1-29.3Ghz for uplinks)

    L-Band(161Mhz)

  • Year of Operation:-1998

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

IRIDIUM SATELLITE SYSTEM

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

THE TELEDESIC NETWORK

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

TELEDESIC NETWORK-FEATURES

  • Broadband Network of LEO Satellites.

  • 288 LEO Satellites.

  • Frequency Band:--Ka

  • Uplink Frequency:-18.8Ghz-19.3Ghz

  • DownLink Frequency:-28.6Ghz-29.1Ghz

    Contd…..

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

TELEDESIC…...

  • SPEEDS:-UPLINK-2Mbps

    Downlink-640Kbps

  • Uses fast Packet Switching.

  • Bandwidth on demand.

  • Multiple access technique:-TDMA

  • High Mask Angle:-40

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

THE HUGHES GEO NETWORK

  • Broadband Satellite Network using GEO.

  • 8 GEO Satellites.

  • Frequency Band:-Ka(17.7Ghz-30Ghz).

  • Uplink Speeds:-6Mbps.

  • Intersatellite Links

  • Interoperability with terrestrial networks.

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

THE HUGHES NETWORK……

  • Bandwidth On Demand.

  • Uses Spot Beam Technology.

  • Service Begins in 2001.

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

THE SPOT BEAM TECHNOLOGY

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

BANDWIDTH ON DEMAND

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

VSAT

  • Stands For Very Small Aperture Terminal.

  • Satellite driven Service.

  • Network consists of Hubs,Outdoor Units.

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

VSAT NETWORK

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

VSAT-CONFIGURATION

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

REMOTE ACCESS-FUTURE

U.S Consumer Internet Access in 2002--Main Access Method

Source:-Gartner Group

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

REMOTE ACCESS-FUTURE

U.S Enterprise Remote Access in 2002-Main Access Method

Source:-Gartner Group

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

REMOTE ACCESS

WORKPLACE OF THE FUTURE

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

BASICS :-GEOSTATIONARY SATELLITE

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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REMOTE ACCESS

SATELLITE COMMUNICATION BANDS

Datacom II REMOTE ACCESS


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