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Integrated Submillimeter and Terahertz Receivers with Superconducting Local Oscillator. V.P. Koshelets , S.V. Shitov, P.N. Dmitriev, A.B. Ermakov, L.V.Filippenko, O.V. Koryukin, A.S. Sobolev, M.Yu. Torgashin Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics (IREE), Moscow, Russia

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Integrated submillimeter and terahertz receivers with superconducting local oscillator
Integrated Submillimeter and Terahertz Receivers with Superconducting Local Oscillator

V.P. Koshelets, S.V. Shitov, P.N. Dmitriev, A.B. Ermakov, L.V.Filippenko, O.V. Koryukin, A.S. Sobolev, M.Yu. Torgashin

Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics (IREE), Moscow, Russia

T. de Graauw, W. Luinge, R. Hoogeveen, P. Yagoubov

National Institute for Space Research (SRON), the Netherlands

Björkliden, Sweden


Integrated submillimeter and terahertz receivers with superconducting local oscillator outline
Integrated Submillimeter and Terahertz Receivers with Superconducting Local OscillatorOutline

·       Superconducting Integrated Receiver (SIR) – Introduction

·        SIR - State of Art

·        FFO Phase Locking; Phase Noise

·        SIR with Phase Locked FFO – First Implementation

·        TErahertz LImb Sounder (TELIS)

·        Optimization of the FFO for TELIS

·        1 THz SIR - Prospects and Limitations

·        Conclusion

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Block diagram of superconducting integrated receiver
Block Diagram of Superconducting Integrated Receiver Superconducting Local Oscillator

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Integrated submm wave receiver
Integrated Submm Wave Receiver Superconducting Local Oscillator

  • Single chip SIS receivers with superconducting FFO has been studied at frequencies from 100 to 700 GHz

  • A DSB receiver noise temperature as low as 90 K has been achieved at 500 GHz

  • 9-pixel Imaging Array Receiver has been successfully tested

  • Phase Locking (PLL) up to 700 GHz

    POSSIBLE APPLICATIONS

  • Airborne Receiver for Atmospheric Research and Environmental Monitoring; Radio Astronomy

  • Large Imaging Array Receiver

  • Laboratory General Purpose MM & subMM Wave Receiver

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Integrated receiver microcircuits

LO feeder Superconducting Local Oscillator

(4 μm wide

microstrip line)

Antenna tuner

Antenna - 1

LO injector

(1 μm wide /4

microstrip line)

SIS junction

1 μm x1 μm

DC bias/IF output & control line for Josephson noise suppression

Antenna - 2

Antenna tuner

Integrated Receiver Microcircuits

20 m

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Replaceable module of the 500 ghz imaging array superconducting integrated receiver
Replaceable Module of the 500 GHz Superconducting Local OscillatorImaging Array Superconducting Integrated Receiver

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Nine pixel imaging array receiver block
Nine-pixel Imaging Array Receiver Block Superconducting Local Oscillator.

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Antenna beam pattern of the sir
Antenna Beam Pattern of the SIR Superconducting Local Oscillator

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Sir noise temperature
SIR Noise Temperature Superconducting Local Oscillator

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Flux flow oscillator
Flux Flow Oscillator Superconducting Local Oscillator

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Ffo sis frequency control

FFO frequency Superconducting Local Oscillator

265 GHz

437 GHz

570 GHz

670 GHz

FFO + SIS; Frequency Control

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Ffo sis power control
FFO + SIS; Power Control Superconducting Local Oscillator

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Circuit for ffo linewidth study pl
Circuit for FFO Linewidth Superconducting Local OscillatorStudy & PL

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Example of ffo spectrum
Example of FFO Spectrum Superconducting Local Oscillator

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Spectra of the ffo at 707 45 ghz
Spectra of the FFO at 707.45 GHz Superconducting Local Oscillator

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Down converted spectrum of the ffo phase locked at 707 5 ghz
Down-converted Superconducting Local Oscillatorspectrum of the FFO phase locked at 707.5 GHz

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Phase noise of the pl ffo
Phase Noise of the PL FFO Superconducting Local Oscillator

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9 Superconducting Local Oscillator

10

11

12

13

14

26

27

15

28

1

16

2

17

3

18

4

19

5

20

6

7

8

21

22

23

24

25

Microcircuit of the superconducting integrated receiver with phase-locked Josephson oscillator.The chip size is 4 mm by 4 mm.

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Spectral resolution of the sir with phase locked ffo
Spectral Resolution of the SIR Superconducting Local OscillatorWith Phase-locked FFO

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Spectral line of so 2 at 326 867 ghz detected by sir with phased locked ffo and processed by aos
Spectral line of SO Superconducting Local Oscillator2 at 326.867 GHzdetected by SIR with phased-locked FFO and processed by AOS

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Telis
TELIS Superconducting Local Oscillator

  • Acronym:TErahertz LImb Sounder

  • Balloon instrument on board the MIPAS gondola, IMK Karlsruhe

  • Threeindependent frequency channels, cryogenic heterodyne receivers:

    • 500 GHz by RAL

    • 500-650 GHz by SRON-IREE

    • 1.8 THz by DLR (PI)

Björkliden, Sweden


Telis objectives
TELIS Objectives Superconducting Local Oscillator

  • Measure many species (together with MIPAS-B), for atmospheric science

  • Serve as a test platform

    for new sensors

  • Serve as validation tool

    for future satellite missions

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Example of the atmospheric spectrum
Example of the Atmospheric Spectrum Superconducting Local Oscillator

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Telis sir main parameters
TELIS-SIR Main Parameters Superconducting Local Oscillator

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Spectral ratio of the pl ffo vs free running ffo linewidth
Spectral Ratio of the PL FFO Superconducting Local Oscillatorvs free running FFO linewidth

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Ffo linewidth dependence on frequency and current density
FFO Linewidth: Dependence Superconducting Local Oscillatoron Frequency and Current Density

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Flux flow oscillator1
Flux Flow Oscillator Superconducting Local Oscillator

RdB = V/ IBRdCL = VFFO/ICL

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R d cl as a function of r d
R Superconducting Local OscillatordCL as a function of Rd

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Normalized ffo linewidth
Normalized FFO Linewidth Superconducting Local Oscillator

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Normalized ffo linewidth1
Normalized FFO Linewidth Superconducting Local Oscillator

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Ffo linewidth on r d r d cl
FFO Linewidth on (R Superconducting Local Oscillatord + RdCL)

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Ffo linewidth design issue
FFO Linewidth (Design issue) Superconducting Local Oscillator

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Free running ffo linewidth and spectral ratio of the pl ffo as a function of the ffo frequency
Free-running FFO linewidth and spectral ratio of the PL FFO as a function of the FFO frequency

Björkliden, Sweden


1 thz nb alox nb sis mixer with double dipole antenna and nbtin sio 2 al tuning microstrip
1 THz as a function of the FFO frequencyNb-AlOx-Nb SIS-mixer with Double-dipole Antenna and NbTiN/SiO2/Al Tuning Microstrip

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Double dipole sis mixer with nbtin al tuner
Double-dipole SIS Mixer as a function of the FFO frequencywith NbTiN/Al Tuner

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Nb aln nb junctions for thz sir jc 8 and 19 ka cm 2
Nb-AlN-Nb Junctions for THz SIR: as a function of the FFO frequencyJc = 8 and 19 kA/cm2

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Nb aln nb junctions for thz sir jc 70 and 210 ka cm 2
Nb-AlN-Nb Junctions for THz SIR: as a function of the FFO frequency Jc = 70 and 210 kA/cm2

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Submicron nb aln nb junction s 0 03 2 jc 21 ka cm 2 rj rn 14
Submicron Nb-AlN-Nb junction: as a function of the FFO frequencyS = 0.03 2; Jc = 21 kA/cm2; Rj/Rn = 14

EBL + CMP

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Nb aln nbn junctions
Nb-AlN-NbN Junctions as a function of the FFO frequency

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Ivcs of the nb aln nbn ffo measured at different h
IVCs of the Nb-AlN-NbN FFO, as a function of the FFO frequencymeasured at different H

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Spectra of the nb aln nbn ffo at 597 ghz f 3 5 mhz sr 70
Spectra of the Nb-AlN-NbN FFO as a function of the FFO frequencyat 597 GHz, f = 3.5 MHz; SR = 70%

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Thz sir possible implementations ffo mixer
THz SIR – Possible Implementations as a function of the FFO frequency FFO Mixer

  • NbN-MgO/AlN-NbN NbN-MgO/AlN-NbN

    Vg up to 6 mV (1.5 THz) PLO 2 (1 W at 1 THz)

  • NbN-MgO/AlN-NbN Phonon Cooled NbN HEB

    PLO0.1 W ( independent)

    TR  700 K at 1.5 THz

  • Stacked NbN-MgO-NbN Phonon Cooled NbN HEB

    frequency up to 3 THz

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Conclusion
Conclusion as a function of the FFO frequency

  • Optimization of of a Nb-AlOx-Nb Flux-Flow Oscillator design along with a development of the wide-band PLL system allow us to realize a FFO phase locking to a reference oscillator in the frequency range from 250 to 715 GHz. The measured absolute FFO phase noise is as low as –93dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset below the 450GHz carrier. This fits the requirements for most practical applications.

  • The first implementation of a Superconducting Integrated Receiver (SIR) with phased locked FFO has been tested with a resolution better than 10 kHz. The phased locked SIR has been tested successfully as a laboratory spectrometer. This study provides an important input for future development of a balloon-based 500-650 GHz integrated receiver for the Terahertz Limb Sounder (TELIS) scheduled to fly in 2005-2006.

  • Receiver DSB noise temperature below 300 K has been achieved in the frequency range 850-970 GHz. Phase locking of a FFO with NbN electrodes has been demonstrated. Possible implementations of a SIR for operation at frequencies above 1 THz have been proposed.

Björkliden, Sweden


Sron iree and ral receivers
SRON-IREE and RAL Receivers as a function of the FFO frequency

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Concepts of a sir with pl ffo
Concepts of a SIR with PL FFO as a function of the FFO frequency

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Ratio of pl and total ffo power
Ratio of PL and total FFO power as a function of the FFO frequency

Eff. PLL BW (MHz)

FFO LW (MHz)

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Optimization of the hm operation
Optimization of the HM operation as a function of the FFO frequency

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Optimization of the hm operation dependence on hm voltage
Optimization of the HM operation: as a function of the FFO frequencydependence on HM voltage

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Optimization of the hm operation dependence on synthesizer power
Optimization of the HM operation: as a function of the FFO frequencydependence on synthesizer power

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Optimization of the hm operation dependence on pll gain
Optimization of the HM operation: as a function of the FFO frequencydependence on PLL Gain

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