Evolution
Download
1 / 7

Evolution - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 139 Views
  • Uploaded on

Evolution . Sara nishikawa , Bobby Castillo and Ari saturne. Kruger, D. J. (2003). Evolution and altruism: Combining psychological mediators with naturally selected tendencies. Evolution And Human Behavior , 24 (2), 118-125. Introduction. Kruger was interested in:

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Evolution ' - ellema


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Evolution

Evolution

Sara nishikawa, Bobby Castillo and Ari saturne

Kruger, D. J. (2003). Evolution and altruism: Combining psychological mediators with naturally selected tendencies. Evolution And Human Behavior, 24(2), 118-125


Introduction
Introduction

  • Kruger was interested in:

    • Hamilton’s theory of inclusive fitness through kin selection

    • Evolutionary theory; the experience of oneness or empathy could arise as a consequence of attachment related cues that may signal the potential for high genetic commonality in EEA

      • Kinship, friendship and familiarity

Kruger, D. J. (2003). Evolution and altruism: Combining psychological mediators with naturally selected tendencies. Evolution And Human Behavior, 24(2), 118-125


Hypotheses
Hypotheses

  • Kinship should have a significant positive impact on the mental states (oneness and the empathetic concern) that serve as proximate mediators of helping intentions.

  • Kinship should also make a significant unique contribution to the variance explained in helping intentions. People do not need to be aware of the inclusive fitness consequences of their actions for tendencies to be naturally selected. Non-conscious processes may also be quicker than conscious processes, an advantage in critical situations where survival is determined in a matter of seconds.

  • . Following from reciprocal altruism theory, it is predicted that an individual's helping intentions will reflect the expected likelihood for the target to help if positions in the situation were reversed.

  • Participants should have a higher expected likelihood for kin helping them than for non-kin helping them, an intuitive expression of inclusive fitness theory.

Kruger, D. J. (2003). Evolution and altruism: Combining psychological mediators with naturally selected tendencies. Evolution And Human Behavior, 24(2), 118-125


Results
Results

  • Hypothesis 1: The results did not support his first hypothesis such that oneness and empathetic concern for siblings was not higher, and significantly lower, than for friends, z =5.20, p < .001

  • Hypothesis 2: His second hypothesis was supported such that the strength of kinship, d = 0.26, was greater than empathic concern on helping intention, d = 0.24.

  • Hypothesis 3:His third hypothesis regarding reciprocal altruism was supported with the finding that expectancy, through the tendency for reciprocal altruism, was greater than eight times as strong, d = 2.26, as empathetic concern.

  • Hypothesis 4: His fourth hypothesis was supported such that kin helping was higher than non-kin helping, z - 3.76, p < .001.

Kruger, D. J. (2003). Evolution and altruism: Combining psychological mediators with naturally selected tendencies. Evolution And Human Behavior, 24(2), 118-125


Interesting points
Interesting Points

  • Sibling rivalry/competition appeared to outweigh oneness and empathetic concern for kin. Further, the results were significantly lower for siblings than friends.

  • “Empathetic concern had a unique effect oh helping intention…evidence that proximally altruistic mechanisms may operate within the genetically selfish system”

    • Mechanisms that are related to altruism may play a larger role than genetics.

Kruger, D. J. (2003). Evolution and altruism: Combining psychological mediators with naturally selected tendencies. Evolution And Human Behavior, 24(2), 118-125


Weak points
Weak Points

  • Not generalizable to other populations because his population consisted of college students

  • His method section was based on potential helping intentions which are not the best predictors of actual behavior.

Kruger, D. J. (2003). Evolution and altruism: Combining psychological mediators with naturally selected tendencies. Evolution And Human Behavior, 24(2), 118-125


Video
Video

  • http://youtu.be/ahDxg3hc5pM

Kruger, D. J. (2003). Evolution and altruism: Combining psychological mediators with naturally selected tendencies. Evolution And Human Behavior, 24(2), 118-125


ad