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Senior and Advanced Practitioners as part of the multidisciplinary team The Reality of Practice Ms J Corcoran- Lead - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Senior and Advanced Practitioners as part of the multidisciplinary team The Reality of Practice Ms J Corcoran- Lead practitioner for professional & Role Development. Aims of Session. To present the findings of a qualitative study. To provide a theoretical understanding on current barriers

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Senior and Advanced Practitioners as part of the multidisciplinary team The Reality of PracticeMs J Corcoran- Lead practitioner for professional & Role Development

aims of session
Aims of Session
  • To present the findings of a qualitative study.
  • To provide a theoretical understanding on current barriers
  • To highlight strategies to facilitate such roles within a team context.
design method
Design & Method
  • Charmaz (2006) constructive Grounded Theory (GT) approach was employed;
  • Data collection was via in depth interviews from 18 mulitprofessionals who had worked with an SNP or ANP within an acute care setting in Scotland.
  • Data were analysed by constant comparative analysis inherent with this GT approach.
  • In the United Kingdom government policy has highlighted the need for NHS modernisation; central to this reform is multidisciplinary team working (DOH 2000;SGHD 2007).
  • These changes have also lead to an increase in SNP/ANP roles.
research question
Research Question
  • How do members of the multiprofessional team perceive the senior or advanced practitioner role?
  • This research was part of phase one of a larger Grounded Theory study.
  • The purpose of the first phase was to develop a theoretical understanding of a wide range of stakeholders to inform phase two of the overall study.
design method1
Design & Method
  • In-depth interviews following a topic guide was employed for data collection.
  • Data collection took place in 2007, exclusion criteria for this study was participants who did not have an experience working with a senior or advanced practitioner.
  • The sampling strategy was inherent within the constant comparative method, data were analysed and a number of themes emerged that informed the sampling strategy.
  • 18 multidisciplinary team members participated in the study
  • Professional Cultures
  • Doctor/Nurse practitioner game
  • Nurse/Nurse practitioner game
professional cultures
Professional Cultures
  • It has been widely reported that the underlying philosophical base of professions within a health care team may limit true multiprofessional working.

(Firth -Cozens 1998; Finch 2000; Zwarenstein & Reeves 2000; Kavanagh &Cowan 2004).

professional cultures1
Professional Cultures
  • Kavanagh & Cowan (2004) propose that teams within the NHS can be deeply hierarchical with big differences in status and rewards between team members.
professional cultures2
Professional Cultures

Thomas (nurse) illuminates one of issues in relation to communication and professional cultures when he states

“I mean it’s all very hierarchical, and I think we …are very aware of that because we are lower down in the hierarchy than them and that naturally breeds a resentment, you know, ‘Oh why should I clean up after them, they earn more than me!’

professional cultures3
Professional Cultures

All participants outlined that a barrier to these roles was due to differences in professional cultures.

In words of George (Medic)

“We are from different professional cultures maybe that’s why it doesn’t work””.

Whilst Mickey (Medic) further elaborates,

“I think for the junior doctors that’s much more difficult, there is still kind of ‘I’m a doctor you’re a nurse, you’re below me”.

professional cultures4
Professional Cultures
  • All participants within this study highlighted that resistance to NP roles came from both medical and nursing professions, In the words of Fraser (Consultant Medic)

“It’s like some sort of doctor and nurse game and then you’ve got the nurse and nurse practitioner game”.

doctor nurse practitioner game
Doctor/Nurse practitioner game

All medics (n=8) highlighted that there is a lot of resistance towards NP’s as they are undertaking roles that they would never have been “allowed” to do previously.

doctor nurse practitioner game1
Doctor/Nurse practitioner game

Michael a junior surgeon outlined that there is still resistance to these roles, when he stated

“There comes a point where, sort of, a boundary may well have to be drawn where if somebody would say you know essentially this is the kind of thing that medical school might prepare you for, and not nursing school”.

doctor nurse practitioner game2
Doctor/Nurse practitioner game
  • Jayne (Junior Charge Nurse),

“Some of the medical staff focus on the negative component. Whether that be that they’re threatened because of their roles changing or a general blurring of roles in departments”.

nurse nurse practitioner game
Nurse/Nurse practitioner game
  • All nursing and medical participants (n=16) illuminated the perception that nurse practitioners are treated with hostility from other nurses.
nurse nurse practitioner game1
Nurse/Nurse practitioner game
  • Mark (Medic) illustrates medical participants’ views,

“The bigger issue that there is nurses not medics and I’ve had this where … nurses have phoned up and said ‘I need to speak to the doctor and refused to speak to the nurse practitioners. … but those are the people who make some nurse practitioners lives miserable‘you think you’re something special now’

nurse nurse practitioner game2
Nurse/Nurse practitioner game
  • Nurse practitioners originate from the same profession as nurses therefore one could debate if the resistance is generated from a NP making decisions rather than a medic.

In the words of George (Medic)

The nurses say who’s this jumped up so and so coming and telling me how to do my job”

nurse nurse practitioner game3
Nurse/Nurse practitioner game
  • One could liken this to the doctor-nurse game, this links to the original work of Berne (1964).
  • In a social system individuals play games in all human relationships.
  • Roles also become personal for individuals and these personal expectations shape or define the role of a nurse.
  • Debate that NP’s who are seen to be in substitution roles, are viewed as an alternative doctor rather than a nurse within this social game.
nurse nurse practitioner game4
Nurse/Nurse practitioner game

Louise (Nurse) illustrates,

“Nurses are hard on nurses…Other staff will do things for a doctor but won’t help if it’s a nurse practitioner…something in the hierarchy of nursing.”

nurse nurse practitioner game5
Nurse/Nurse practitioner game

As Thomas (Nurse) states,

“These roles were forced upon us”.

Whilst Rosie (Medic) illustrates,

“You know the nurses in the ward don’t seem to accept them, it’s like they’re deserting their kind, you know and going off to the dark side as such “

current barriers
Current Barriers
  • It would appear that traditional professional boundaries within a multiprofessional team context are hindering the acceptance of NP roles within practice.
  • Hybrid role – increase level of resistance
current barriers1
Current Barriers
  • This has implications on the acceptance of such roles and thus the ongoing socialisation of working within multiprofessional teams.
  • Resistance is apparent from both nursing and medicine perspectives, fuelled by the lack of clarity surrounding varying NP roles within the research site.
current barriers2
Current Barriers
  • Junior medical staff resistance appears to stem from a professional belief system, encompassing the perceived reduction in training opportunities due to the implementation of such roles
current barriers3
Current Barriers
  • NP roles raise identity issues for most nurses, with the undercurrent that such individuals within these roles are deserting their profession and siding with medicine.
  • This appears to be threatening for nurses as it challenges their professional belief system surrounding what it is to be a nurse.
strategies to facilitate such roles within a team context
Strategies to facilitate such roles within a team context.
  • Service led NHS Not professional rigid NHS service.
  • Clear outline of how such roles will work within a team.
  • Organisational planning with different members of teams input in planning.
  • Dual reporting structure .