Lecture 3
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Lecture 3. MEDICINE AND PHARMACY OF THE MIDDLE AGES (5-17 CENTURY). The period of dark ages is characterized:. By influence of alchemy on development of medicine and pharmacy

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Lecture 3

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Lecture 3

Lecture 3

MEDICINE AND PHARMACY OF THE MIDDLE AGES

(5-17 CENTURY)


The period of dark ages is characterized

The period of dark ages is characterized:

  • By influence of alchemy on development of medicine and pharmacy

  • By the increase of number of medicines and complication over of their making was brought to the origin of independent pharmacies

  • A selection pharmacy is in the special industry of function of doctor and chemist

  • The special state preparation of druggists is organized.


Medicine in arabian caliphates

Medicine in Arabian Caliphates

  • In 7-8 centuries the Arabs won Palestine, territory of modern states of Syria, Egypt and Iran, northern part of Africa.

  • Since 7 century developed the rich culture in the states of near and average east. The science has reached more high level, than West-European culture of that time.


Arabic medicine absorbed all the best from hypocrite to galen

Arabic medicine absorbed all the best from Hypocrite to Galen.

  • Arabic medicine solved imported problems independently too.

  • Such issues were covered in Arabic treatise:

    a) Body structure;

    b) The views on disease;

    c) The principles of the prophylaxis;

    d) The system of the training of doctors.


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Arabs translated the best Greek, Latin, Persian and Indian manuscripts into the language. Arabs watched over development of science, the centers of science and higher education, library were created in cities.

Medicine in Caliphate on the special place and considered the first among sciences. Considerable development of organization of medical business got in Caliphates.

The first information about foundation of hospitals belong to 800. To 1160 over 60 hospitals were counted in Baghdad.


The first pharmacy was opened in 754

The first pharmacy was opened in 754.

  • In caliphates there were some beginnings of state medicine - special persons with supervision above medical and pharmacy business, examinations of doctors were conducted at schools and academies.

  • Large development on the East was attained by chemistry, more faithful, such its direction as alchemy.


Alchemy got the name in an arabic period

Alchemy got the name in an Arabic period.

Word “alchemy” consists of Arabic prefix of “al” and “chemistry”, which knows “stone of wisdom”. Main task alchemy is converting of cheap metals into gold. For this purpose they tried to find a matter which quicker «ripening» of gold. This powder was named by elixir, so a word appeared elixir. An elixir must was own other magical properties: to heal of all diseases and give immortality.


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Alchemists were done a lot of openings, among them is a receipt of sulphuric, nitric and vinegar acids, salts of mercury; perfection of such processes as besieging, filtration, crystallization, making vehicle for distillation of water and others. Distillation was utilized for a receipt cleaning of alcohol which was adopted the spirit of wine, because he turned out distillation of wine. At this time were convinced, that an alcohol is most strong medicine, he was named” Aqua of vitae” (water of life).


Ai razi 985 925

AI-Razi (985-925)

  • He was the founder and the head of the Baghdad's hospital.

  • A great work "All embracing book on medicine", that consisted of 25 volumes was prepared by him.

  • AI-Razi was called Galen of his time. AI-Razi was specialist in hygiene. When it was necessary to choose a place for building the hospital, he hung some meat in different places of the city. Where the meat was preserved best of all, the construction was started.


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AI-Razi

(985 - 925)


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Al - Razi developed the method of making of gypsum and methods of imposition of gipseous bandage for fixing of break bone.

Al - Razi wrote the first book from medicine in 25 volumes.

Describing every illness, Ar - Razi analyzed it from the point of view the Greek, Syrian, Indian, Persian and Arabic authors, whereupon laid out his supervisions and conclusions.


Avicenna is a prominent scientist of world history

Avicenna is a prominent scientist of world history

  • A large scientist of the Arabic world Avicenna is the founder of the pharmacy of theMiddle Ages. Avicenna was born not far away from Bukhara, Tajikistan.

  • There got education. He was engaged in the advanced and practical study in Iran. A lot of works are written them on the themes of medical art.


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Avicenna

«Canon

of medicine».


Canon of medicine

«Canon of medicine».

  • He consists of 5 volumes. Two books of «Canon» were devoted medicines; second - simple, fifth - to the difficult medical forms.

  • The second book of «Canon» is divided into two treatises. The first treatise includes sections about the system of simple medications, about properties of simple medications, about looking to some external medications and about their storage.

  • In the fourth book of Canon spared much attention to poisons and antidotes. Poisons are separately examined vegetable, animal, and also poisoning these poisons and helps from poisonings.

  • In the fifth book of «Canon» Avicenna describes different difficult medical forms, technology of their making and application. Pharmacy of Avicenna on many ages passed pharmacy of Europe. Pharmacists used his works over 500 years.

  • Avicenna also required the first to conduct the previous tests of medications on animals and only after it to appoint their man.


Medicine and pharmacy of europe

Medicine and Pharmacy of Europe

  • Middle Ages in the west are characterized the new phenomenon which did not know the age-old world - large epidemics. There were the special disease establishments in the port cities of Europe (Venice, Genoa), port supervisors - «guardians of health» appeared, «city doctors appeared later».

  • The special rules - «regulations» which had for a purpose warning of skidding and distribution of contagious illnesses were published in some cities. Hospitals were opened at monasteries.


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During the Middle Ages remnants of the Western knowledge of Pharmacy and Medicine were preserved in the monasteries (fifth to twelfth centuries). These scientists are known to have been taught in the cloisters as early as the seventh century.


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Manuscripts from many islands were translated or copied for monastery libraries. The monks gathered herbs and simples in the field, or raised them in their own herb gardens.

These they prepared according to the art of the apothecary for the benefit of the sick and injured. Gardens such as these still may be found in monasteries in many countries.


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The personal touch of official medicine of middle ages were difficult medical samples of writing. The number of ingredients in one recipe quite often reached to a few ten. The special place was occupied by antidotes - so-called terpack, which included 70 and more component parts, basic component part is serpentine meat.


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Terpak was considered also a mean against all of internal illnesses. These facilities were valued very expensive. Making of them, as a rule, was conducted in public, in the presence of guests and invited persons.


In some european states the functions of doctor and chemist parted by kings decrees

In some European states the functions of doctor and chemist parted by Kings Decrees.

  • Forbidden doctors to trade in medications, and to the druggists - engaged in treatment. In the same period the order of receipt of pharmaceutical education was legalized in Europe. For example, to get pharmaceutical education in France it is necessary it was to visit 4 years a student in a pharmacy, then 10 years to work in quality the helper of druggist and only after it to go in for an exam on the receipt of rank of druggist.

  • In connection with organization of the first pharmacies the revisions of pharmacies were set, the oath of druggists which prepared medicinal preparations governed storage and vacation of poisons.


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The center of medicine in the Middle Ages were universities which in the primary kind presented the corporation of students, which was analogical workshops.

Then were opened universities in Bolonii, Paris, Oxford and other cities.

The number of students in these universities was very insignificant, not exceeding a few ten on all of faculties.


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The first medical school was opened in Solerno.


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Medical school in Solerno.


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The most

progressive

role had

university

in Solerno.


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The city of Salerno, Italy


Late period of the middle ages are characterized new direction in chemistry medical chemistry

Late period of the Middle Ages are characterized new direction in chemistry - medical chemistry.

Medicinal or pharmaceutical chemistry is a scientific discipline at the intersection of chemistry and pharmacology involved with designing, synthesizing and developing pharmaceuticaldrugs. Medicinal chemistry involves the identification, synthesis and development of new chemical entities suitable for therapeutic use. It also includes the study of existing drugs, their biological properties, and their quantitative structure-activity relationships.


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