Lecture 3. MEDICINE AND PHARMACY OF THE MIDDLE AGES (5-17 CENTURY). The period of dark ages is characterized:. By influence of alchemy on development of medicine and pharmacy
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MEDICINE AND PHARMACY OF THE MIDDLE AGES
a) Body structure;
b) The views on disease;
c) The principles of the prophylaxis;
d) The system of the training of doctors.
Medicine in Caliphate on the special place and considered the first among sciences. Considerable development of organization of medical business got in Caliphates.
The first information about foundation of hospitals belong to 800. To 1160 over 60 hospitals were counted in Baghdad.
Word “alchemy” consists of Arabic prefix of “al” and “chemistry”, which knows “stone of wisdom”. Main task alchemy is converting of cheap metals into gold. For this purpose they tried to find a matter which quicker «ripening» of gold. This powder was named by elixir, so a word appeared elixir. An elixir must was own other magical properties: to heal of all diseases and give immortality.
(985 - 925)
Al - Razi wrote the first book from medicine in 25 volumes.
Describing every illness, Ar - Razi analyzed it from the point of view the Greek, Syrian, Indian, Persian and Arabic authors, whereupon laid out his supervisions and conclusions.
These they prepared according to the art of the apothecary for the benefit of the sick and injured. Gardens such as these still may be found in monasteries in many countries.
Then were opened universities in Bolonii, Paris, Oxford and other cities.
The number of students in these universities was very insignificant, not exceeding a few ten on all of faculties.
Medicinal or pharmaceutical chemistry is a scientific discipline at the intersection of chemistry and pharmacology involved with designing, synthesizing and developing pharmaceuticaldrugs. Medicinal chemistry involves the identification, synthesis and development of new chemical entities suitable for therapeutic use. It also includes the study of existing drugs, their biological properties, and their quantitative structure-activity relationships.