Lecture 3. MEDICINE AND PHARMACY OF THE MIDDLE AGES (5-17 CENTURY). The period of dark ages is characterized:. By influence of alchemy on development of medicine and pharmacy
MEDICINE AND PHARMACY OF THE MIDDLE AGES
a) Body structure;
b) The views on disease;
c) The principles of the prophylaxis;
d) The system of the training of doctors.
Arabs translated the best Greek, Latin, Persian and Indian manuscripts into the language. Arabs watched over development of science, the centers of science and higher education, library were created in cities.
Medicine in Caliphate on the special place and considered the first among sciences. Considerable development of organization of medical business got in Caliphates.
The first information about foundation of hospitals belong to 800. To 1160 over 60 hospitals were counted in Baghdad.
Word “alchemy” consists of Arabic prefix of “al” and “chemistry”, which knows “stone of wisdom”. Main task alchemy is converting of cheap metals into gold. For this purpose they tried to find a matter which quicker «ripening» of gold. This powder was named by elixir, so a word appeared elixir. An elixir must was own other magical properties: to heal of all diseases and give immortality.
Alchemists were done a lot of openings, among them is a receipt of sulphuric, nitric and vinegar acids, salts of mercury; perfection of such processes as besieging, filtration, crystallization, making vehicle for distillation of water and others. Distillation was utilized for a receipt cleaning of alcohol which was adopted the spirit of wine, because he turned out distillation of wine. At this time were convinced, that an alcohol is most strong medicine, he was named” Aqua of vitae” (water of life).
(985 - 925)
Al - Razi developed the method of making of gypsum and methods of imposition of gipseous bandage for fixing of break bone.
Al - Razi wrote the first book from medicine in 25 volumes.
Describing every illness, Ar - Razi analyzed it from the point of view the Greek, Syrian, Indian, Persian and Arabic authors, whereupon laid out his supervisions and conclusions.
During the Middle Ages remnants of the Western knowledge of Pharmacy and Medicine were preserved in the monasteries (fifth to twelfth centuries). These scientists are known to have been taught in the cloisters as early as the seventh century.
Manuscripts from many islands were translated or copied for monastery libraries. The monks gathered herbs and simples in the field, or raised them in their own herb gardens.
These they prepared according to the art of the apothecary for the benefit of the sick and injured. Gardens such as these still may be found in monasteries in many countries.
The personal touch of official medicine of middle ages were difficult medical samples of writing. The number of ingredients in one recipe quite often reached to a few ten. The special place was occupied by antidotes - so-called terpack, which included 70 and more component parts, basic component part is serpentine meat.
Terpak was considered also a mean against all of internal illnesses. These facilities were valued very expensive. Making of them, as a rule, was conducted in public, in the presence of guests and invited persons.
The center of medicine in the Middle Ages were universities which in the primary kind presented the corporation of students, which was analogical workshops.
Then were opened universities in Bolonii, Paris, Oxford and other cities.
The number of students in these universities was very insignificant, not exceeding a few ten on all of faculties.
The first medical school was opened in Solerno.
Medical school in Solerno.
The city of Salerno, Italy
Medicinal or pharmaceutical chemistry is a scientific discipline at the intersection of chemistry and pharmacology involved with designing, synthesizing and developing pharmaceuticaldrugs. Medicinal chemistry involves the identification, synthesis and development of new chemical entities suitable for therapeutic use. It also includes the study of existing drugs, their biological properties, and their quantitative structure-activity relationships.