World meteorological organization working together in weather climate and water
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WMO. World Meteorological Organization Working together in weather, climate and water. Submarine Cables for Ocean/Climate Monitoring and Disaster Warning ITU- UNESCO/IOC- WMO Workshop Dr Wenjian ZHANG, D/OBS, WMO September 8, 2011, ROME. www.wmo.int. I: Brief Introduction of

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World meteorological organization working together in weather climate and water

WMO

World Meteorological OrganizationWorking together in weather, climate and water

Submarine Cables for Ocean/Climate Monitoring and Disaster Warning

ITU- UNESCO/IOC- WMO Workshop

Dr Wenjian ZHANG, D/OBS, WMO

September 8, 2011, ROME

www.wmo.int


World meteorological organization working together in weather climate and water

I: Brief Introduction of

The World Meteorological Organization (WMO)

  • The WMO is the UN system's authoritative voice on the state and behaviour of the Earth's atmosphere, its interaction with the oceans, the climate it produces and the resulting distribution of water resources.

  • The Vision of the WMO : To provide world leadership in expertise and international co-operation in

    • Weather,

    • Climate,

    • Water, and

    • related environmental issues,

  • and thereby to contribute to the safety and well being of people throughout the world and to the economic benefit of all nations.


Organizational structure of wmo 189 members

Organizational Structure of WMO (189 Members)

CONGRESS

ExecutiveCouncil

Regional Associations

Technical Commissions

Working Groups

Rapporteurs

Working Groups

Rapporteurs

Other Joint Bodies

WCRP , IPCC

GCOS

Working Groups

Panel of Experts

Secretary-General

Secretariat

WMO/OMM

Dr W. Zhang, WMO Presentation @ ITU/IOC/WMO Workshop, Rome, Italy


Wmo global observing system gos

WMO Global Observing System (GOS)

World Weather Watch - Global Observing System (GOS, 1963), WMO backbone system

  • Surface & Ocean in situ observing networks

  • Upper-air networks

  • Surface remote sensing (Radar) networks

  • Airborne and observations

  • Satellite constellations


Gos space based development

GOS Space-based development

1961

1978

1990

2009


Historic evolution of weather prediction skills

Historic Evolution of Weather Prediction Skills

Source: Martin Miller, ECMWF


Ii wmo new initiative on climate services

II: WMO New Initiative on Climate Services

-Observation challenges and new data & information needs


World meteorological organization working together in weather climate and water

World Climate Conference-3

Aug 31 – Sept 4, 2009, GENEVA


The five main elements of the gfcs

The five main elements of the GFCS


Major gaps in the three domains

Major Gaps in the Three Domains

Atmosphere

Ocean

Terrestrial

Polar Regions (all three domains)


World meteorological organization working together in weather climate and water

Weather & Climate Prediction Focus 1980-2005

1day 1week 1month 1season 1year1 decade 1 century


World meteorological organization working together in weather climate and water

The Seamless Prediction Problem

1day 1week 1month 1season 1year1 decade 1 century

Fronts

Convective

systems

Cyclones

MJO

ENSO

PDO

NAO

AMO

Blocks

QBO


World meteorological organization working together in weather climate and water

The Seamless Prediction Problem

Ice sheets

atmospheric chemistry

land

moisture

vegetation

ocean

skin

upper

full

atmosphere

region

global

1day 1week 1month 1season 1year1 decade 1 century

Fronts

Convec

systems

Cyclones

MJO

ENSO

PDO

NAO

AMO

Blocks

QBO


World meteorological organization working together in weather climate and water

Need an Integrated Global Observing System meet all requirements:WIGOS


A seamless prediction framework

A Seamless Prediction Framework

Forecast

Uncertainty

Forecast Lead Time

Applications

Climate Change.

Centuries

Scenarios

Decades

Anthropogenic Forcing

Climate Variability

Years

Outlook

Prediction

Seasons

Guidance

Months

Boundary Conditions

Threats Assessments

2 Weeks

Weather

1 Week

Forecasts

Initial Conditions

Days

Watches

Hours

Warnings & Alert Coordination

Adapted from: NOAA

Minutes

Energy

Health

State/Local Planning

Recreation

Commerce

Ecosystem

Space Applications

Hydropower

Protection of Life & Property

Environment

Fire Weather

Agriculture

Water Management

Water Resource Planning

Transportation


Gfcs needs observing the earth as a complex system

GFCS needs observing the Earth as a Complex System

Surface Winds

Precipitation

Reflection and Transmission

Evaporation

Transpiration

Surface Temperature

Land

Atmosphere

Circulation

Surface Winds

Precipitation

Reflection and Transmission

Surface Temperature

Evaporation

Currents

Upwelling

Infiltration

Runoff

Nutrient Loading

Surface Temperature

Currents

Ocean


World meteorological organization working together in weather climate and water

WMO Co-sponsored Global Observing Systems

--Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) IOC-led, UNEP, WMOand ICSU

Current coverage

  • JCOMM Observations Programme Area (OPA) Implementation Goals now taking into account


World meteorological organization working together in weather climate and water

Disaster Warning:Global Challenges We ShareAs society becomes more complex we become more sensitive to natural and human induced variability, particularly along coast areas

Global Hotspot study (World Bank with ProVention Consortium)

Risk levels: Top 30%:Red; Middle 30%:yellow; Lowest 40%: Blue:

35 countries have more than 5% pop in areas at risk from three or more hazards

96 countries have more than 10% pop in areas at risk from two or more hazards

160 countries have more than 25% pop in areas at risk from one or more hazards


Wmo perspective on regarding global ocean observations

WMO perspective on regarding global ocean observations

  • IOC-WMO-UNEP-ICSU Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS)

    • Joint WMO-IOC Technical Commission for Oceanography and Marine Meteorology (JCOMM) coordinating implementation of the global component of GOOS

  • JCOMM Observations Programme Area (OPA) Implementation Goals now taking into account

    • 2010 update of the GCOS-IP (and satellite supplement)

    • Progress report on the GCOS-IP

    • Outcome of OceanOBS’09 (Venice, September 2009)

    • Outcome of WCC3 and developing GFCS

    • RRR and non-climate requirements (e.g. NWP, GCW, SIA, …)


Ocean observation panels

Ocean Observation Panels

Under JCOMM:

  • Data Buoy Cooperation Panel (DBCP)

    • Drifters, tropical moorings, ice buoys

    • 10 Action Groups

      • E-SURFMAR, IABP, IPAB, ISABP, IBPIO, NPDBAP, GDP, TIP, OceanSITES, ITP

  • Ship Observations Team (SOT)

    • VOS (incl. VOSClim), ASAP, SOOP

  • Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS)

    JCOMM having also links also with:

    • Argo (profiling floats)

    • OceanSITES (long-term deepwater reference stations)

    • IOCCP (Ocean Carbon)


Issues

Issues

  • Achieving global coverage by in situ networks

    • JCOMM OPA Implementation Goals – 62% completed

    • Integrated approach (complementarity of obs. Systems)

    • Ocean observations also used for

      • NWP, SIA

      • Ocean Mesoscale Forecast

      • Coastal marine services

      • Multi-harzard warning systems

  • System-wide monitoring and performance reporting

    • JCOMM Metrics

    • WMO Rolling Review of Requirements (RRR)

  • Funding to meet implementation targets


The joint wmo ioc technical commission for oceanography and marine meteorology jcomm iii

The Joint WMO-IOC Technical Commission for Oceanography and Marine Meteorology (JCOMM) -III

  • Ocean sub-surface variables

  • For met-ocean applications, and in the latter part of the medium-range for GNWP (~7-15 days) and for SIAF, the role of the sub-surface layers of the ocean becomes increasingly important, and hence observations of these variables, particularly temperature and salinity, become relevant.

  • Argo is the major source of sub-surface temperature and salinity observations, providing global coverage to ~2000 m, mostly with acceptable-to-good spatial resolution, but only marginal temporal resolution in the tropics.

  • The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO)/TRITON moored buoy network provides data of good frequency and accuracy, and acceptable spatial resolution, of sub-surface temperature for the tropical Pacific. The tropical moored networks in the Atlantic (PIRATA) and the Indian (RAMA) Oceans are better than marginal but do not yet have long-term commitment.

  • The Ships-of-Opportunity Programme (SOOP) provides data of acceptable spatial resolution over some regions of the globe but temporal resolution is marginal. SOOP is evolving to provide enhanced temporal resolution along some specific lines. There will be a need for continuity of those measurements.


Major challenges in four areas

Major challenges in four Areas

Data policy & sharing

Quality and long-term consistence

Historical Data Rescue

New Observing Capability & Impact


World meteorological organization working together in weather climate and water

Accuracy, PrecisionRepresentativenessMeasurement traceabilityLong-time series stabilityReducing uncertainty……

Ensure the quality of the observations to meet GFCS requirements, data rescue


New observations for ocean are needed urgently submarine cable new opportunity for us

New observations for ocean are needed urgently! Submarine cable: new opportunity for us

The predictability of ENSO

  • Seasonal climate predictions require information below the surface for many tens of metres depth,

  • For decadal climate prediction, information from the full depth of the ocean may be needed.


World meteorological organization working together in weather climate and water

WMO Impact Studies will give us the impact of the new observation to weather/climate services

AIRS+IASI contribute to 23.8% error reduction

4 AMSU-A contribute to 17.2% error reduction

RAOBs contribute to 7.9% error reduction

The order of the top five and their contribution to error reduction is:

AMSU-A (4 satellites) 17.2%

IASI (one satellite) 12.0%

AIRS (one satellite) 11.8%

AIRREP (aircraft temperature and winds) 9.3%

GPSRO (bending angles) 8.5%

TEMP (radiosonde winds, humidity, and temperatures) 7.9%

QuikSCAT (scatterometer surface winds over the oceans) 5.2%


Data and products access and availability

Data and Products access and availability

- Brief introduction to WMO Information System (WIS)


What is wis

What is WIS?

  • A catalogue of available data & products

    • Seamless discovery, access and retrieval of data and products (DAR) across all WMO systems, including collaborators and partners.

  • A network to exchange data

    • Exchange of operational critical and time critical information as well as less critical and high volume data (GTS is an integral part of WIS)

  • WIS serves all WMO programs and is open to partners outside

    • GOOS,GEOSS, HYCOS, WIGOS, GFCS,..

    • Other UN organizations (FAO,WHO), research organizations, other partners

  • Benefits of WIS

    • Data management inside WMO and inside Members will be improved.

    • This also increases the relevancy of WMO to other communities

    • Data remains under the data provider’s control


Search in wis

Search in WIS

SearchRequest

marine warnings in area bounded by 40W to 10W and 45N to 70N

SearchResults

Information request to custodian

http://weather.gmdss.org/I.html

Centre publishes metadata to GISC DAR catalogue

Retrieve information

Security/authentication/authorization and even charging is managed by each service provider

GISC – DAR service

User searches for metadata then retrieves information from data custodian

NC/DCPC information access service


Who am i nc dcpc or gisc

Who am I? (NC,DCPC or GISC)

  • National Centre? (NC)

    • Collect and/or produce national information

    • Typically a NMC

  • Data Collection or Production Centre? (DCPC)

    • Collect and/or produce regional or thematic information or are a communications hub

    • centre with regional role (e.G GRUAN, Arctic Data centre, RCC)

  • Global Information System Centres? (GISC)

    • Hold WMO metadata catalogue, 24hr cache of all GTS data , and act as core comm’s hub

    • Substantial technical and global/regional support commitment needed

NCs and DCPCs are data (and metadata) providers. GICS are mere infrastructure centres.The same NMHS can implement several types of WIS centres


Wis virtual structure maps onto the gts

WIS virtual structure maps onto the GTS

New virtual structure - Metadata is uploaded from NC & DCPC to GISC (using GTS or others means)- Data communication network comprises, but is not limited to the GTS (also internet, satellite, others)

GISC<-> RTH

DCPC <-> RTH/NMC

NC <-> NMC

GTS structure remains in place for exchange of time-critical and operation-critical data and products


What is that status of wis

What is that status of WIS?

WIS will become operational in Jan 2012, as affirmed by Cg XVI

  • Main infrastructure centres (GISC) in operational or pre-operational state in regions II,III,IV and VI as designated/noted by Cg.

  • Over 50 data providers (NC,DCPC) designated

  • Main task is to bring all WMO members and partners on board

  • List of current WIS centres

    http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/www/WIS/centres/index_en.php

    Conclusion: WIS is one of the operational tools for us to access, disseminate, share and archive of our submarine cable observational data for supporting our research, operation and services.


  • World meteorological organization working together in weather climate and water

    WMO

    Thank you


    The vision of the wmo

    The Vision of the WMO

    To provide world leadership in expertise and international co-operation in

    • Weather,

    • Climate,

    • Water, and

    • related environmental issues,

      and thereby to contribute to the safety and well being of people throughout the world and to the economic benefit of all nations.


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