Note taking in egr115
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Note taking in EGR115. notebook slide number in margin. comments on the right. write down vocabulary words write down overall ideas write down things that we repeat 4 or 5 times! write down possible errors printout of slides print 2 or 3 slides per page draw arrows, add your comments

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Note taking in EGR115

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Note taking in egr115

Note taking in EGR115

  • notebook

    • slide number in margin. comments on the right.

    • write down vocabulary words

    • write down overall ideas

    • write down things that we repeat 4 or 5 times!

    • write down possible errors

  • printout of slides

    • print 2 or 3 slides per page

    • draw arrows, add your comments

    • highlight


Introduction to computers and programming

Introduction to Computers and Programming

History of computers (4 slides)

What is a computer system?

What is software?

What is programming?

Different languages

Compiled vs. interpreted


History of computers

History of Computers

Computers ≠ calculators

Computers are programmable. The first calculators were not programmable, hence not considered computers.


1854 150 years ago pioneer of modern computer

1854 (~150 years ago) - Pioneer of modern computer!

Babbage’s difference engine

Device to subtract adjacent valuesin a column of numbers. Created for engineers in charge of creating tables of logarithms and trigonometric functions.


1943 70 years ago came colossus

1943 (~70 years ago) .. came Colossus

Primarily used for breaking the German codes during World War 2.

It would crack Enigma Codes (codes that were cracked by exhaustively shifting text by arbitrary amounts). For example:

‘Zsszbjzs 9599’ would be

‘Attack at 0600’


Finally the von neumann architecture

Finally, the von Neumann Architecture…

  • The Von Neumanncomputer architecture is mostly what we still use today. The architecture separates a computer in 3 major parts:

    • The Central Processing Unit (CPU)

    • The computer memory

    • The Input/Output (I/O) devices

?

?

CPU + memory

Screen=output

Mouse=input

Speakers=output

Knob=input

Keyboard=input


Software and programming

Software and programming?

  • Microsoft Word, Excel, Guitar Hero, the address book in your cell phone, the electronic that starts a car, the avionics in an airplane… are all softwarethat were written by people.

  • Programming is the act of writing logical instructions that will be executed when people use the software.

  • It is as difficult as learning to speak a foreign language, since the programmer is constrained to the vocabulary (specific keywords) and grammar (exact syntax) of programming.

    ( ) ‘ ’ , ;

    if for else while switch case otherwise end input fprintf


A computer system today

A computer system today

  • Keeping the von Neumann architecture, today’s computing systems combine both hardware and software.

    • Hardware (i.e. what’s hard and can break..): mouse, keyboard, monitor, hard disk, printer, CD, DVD.

    • Software i.e. the programs that describe the steps we want the computer to perform.


Trivia 1

Trivia 1

  • An actual DVD is:

    a) hardware

    b) software

  • The content on a Microsoft Office DVD is most likely:

    a) hardware

    b) software


Categories of software

Categories of software

  • Software contains the instructions the CPU uses to run programs.

  • There are several categories, including:

    • Operating systems (OS) – manager of the computer system as a whole

    • Software applications – commercial programs that have been written to solve specific problems

    • Language compilers - to ‘translate’ programs written by people into something understandable by the machine (sometimes not needed)


Trivia 2

Trivia 2

  • Which type of software are these? ________


Trivia 3

Trivia 3

  • What type of software are these?____________


Generations of languages used to write software

Generations of Languages used to write software

1) Machine language – also

called binary language.

Sequence of 0’s and 1’s.

2) Assembly language – each line of code produces a single machine instruction (add, subtract…)

3) High-level language – slightly closer to spoken languages.

addb,c

adda,b

a= a + b + c;

This line does the same as the two above.


Trivia 4

Trivia 4

  • Order these types of languages in the order they came out?

    • assembly language

    • machine language

    • high-level language


Finally matlab

Finally… MATLAB

  • Is an interpretedlanguage – does not require compilation, but it does have a compilation step hidden from the user.

  • Has an interactiveenvironment –

    • “In the MATLAB environment, you can develop and execute programs that contain MATLAB commands. You can execute a MATLAB command, observe the results, and then execute another MATLAB command that interacts with the information in memory, observe its results and so on.”


Key points

Key Points

  • Computers vs. Calculators?

  • Evolution of computers from WW2?

  • Von Neumann Architecture?

  • Hardware vs. software?

  • Types of software?

  • Types of languages?

  • MATLAB?


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