chapter 5 lesson 1 nubia and kush
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Chapter 5 Lesson 1 Nubia and Kush . Mr. Bisconti. Vocabulary Words. Commercial – large scale buying and selling Raw Material – natural resources that can be formed into useful products Import – brought in Export – sent out Annex – add on Independence - freedom. Cataracts Pose a Danger.

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vocabulary words
Vocabulary Words
  • Commercial – large scale buying and selling
  • Raw Material – natural resources that can be formed into useful products
  • Import – brought in
  • Export – sent out
  • Annex – add on
  • Independence - freedom
cataracts pose a danger
Cataracts Pose a Danger

A. Location of Nubia

  • 1. Nubia stretched from the Southern Border of Egypt to the City of Kharton
  • 2. Here, in 2000BC, the Kush Civilization began to develop
  • 3. Egypt and Kush developed similar ideas and customs
  • a. The two had political, cultural and commercial relations
cataracts pose a danger1
Cataracts Pose a Danger
  • Geography of Nubia was much different from Egypt
  • 1. High cliffs rise straight up along the banks of the Nile
  • 2. The Nile does not run smooth through Nubia
  • a. Large granite boulders block portions of the river, causing rapids and waterfalls
  • b. Six large areas of cataracts found along the southern part of the Nile
  • 3. Cataracts made travel and trade difficult
  • a. sailors had to wait for either the water to rise or pulled their boats over and around them
a wealth of resource
A Wealth of Resource
  • A. Cattle Herders
  • 1. Many Nubians chose to do this as opposed to farming
  • 2. Cattle owners were usually the richest and most powerful people in all of Nubia
  • a. Most were pastoral nomads who moved their herds from one place to another with the seasons
  • b. Only small amount of Nubians were farmers who stayed in one place
  • B. Raw Materials were plentiful
  • 1. Within Nubia’s rocky lands were many resources
  • a. copper and gold
  • b. cliffs of granite and other kinds of rock, used for construction
a wealth of resource1
A Wealth of Resource
  • Nubians used these raw materials to make valuable products
  • a. gold was used in jewelry
  • b. iron was used for tools or weapons
  • C. Nubian Pottery
  • 1. Crafted out of clay
  • 2. Valuable to Nubian farmers for storing grain, holding water, cooking in, and/or keeping supplies
  • 3. Nubian potter was of such fine quality, it was used for trade
nubian trade
Nubian Trade
  • A. Location (between northern and southern Africa) made Nubiaideal for trade, as the worked as the go- between for traders
  • 1. From the south, Nubians imported:
  • a. leopard skins, ostrich eggs, feathers, ivory, ebony, spices, and gold
  • 2. They the exported these items to the North
  • B. Nubian gold (which they mined and then purified) was in high demand
  • 1. Egyptians used it lavishly to construct statues and decorations
nubian trade1
Nubian Trade
  • C. Nubian trade flourished as did the economy
  • 1. Control of the gold trade served to make Nubia rich and neighbors jealous
  • D. Conflicts began over trade routes
  • 1. Egypt realized that they could gain greater wealth if they controlled Nubia’s trade routes
  • 2. By 2600BC, Egypt had claimed all trade routes in Northern Nubia
  • a. Egyptians also looted Nubia’s rich natural resources
  • 3. In about 2000BC, an Egyptian King began to annex the land on northern Nubia
  • a. First he conquered the land, then ordered mud brick forts built near the 2nd cataract
  • b. Egyptians gained Nubian resources and soldiers
freedom and re conquest
Freedom and Re-conquest
  • A. Egyptian control of Nubia did not last long
  • 1. A powerful kingdom arose in Southern Nubia and began to drive Egyptians out of Nubian lands
  • 2. Ancient Egyptians called this new kingdom Kush
  • a. Also called Kerma, for its capital was located near the 3rd cataract in Kerma, Sudan
  • 3. By 1650BC, Kushites had gained independence from Egypt
freedom and re conquest1
Freedom and Re-conquest
  • 4. Kerma became a major site for river and overland trade

a. Goods, such as gold, salt, spices, elephant tusks, and rhinoceros horns brought great wealth to Kerma

  • B. Kushites try to retain control with alliance
  • 1. Kerma Kings gained power as well as wealth
  • a. They gained control of northern Nubia
  • 2. Egypt was losing control of their lands to the Hyskos, who already controlled northern Egypt
  • 3. Kushite King became an ally to the Hyskos to protect its land from Egypt
egypt regains p ower
Egypt Regains Power
  • 1. Egyptians forced the Hyskos off their land and then destroyed Kush’s capital city of Kerma
  • a. Egypt claimed control of much of Nubia
  • b. Egyptians built cities and temples all over Nubia
  • c. Under Egyptian rule, many Kushitesadopted Egyptian religious beliefs, writings, customs, and ways of dressing
summary
Summary
  • The land of Nubia was rich in natural resources.
  • The early Nubians built a strong economy based on trade. Egypt claimed trade routes in northern Nubia and later annexed the land.
  • The Kush civilization began when the Nubians began to drive the Egyptians out of Nubia.
  • Later, the Egyptians again captured Nubian land.
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