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ECE5320 Mechatronics Literature Survey on Sensors and Actuators Topic: Gyroscopes. Prepared by: Daniel Ricsi Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering Utah State University E:[email protected] 2/26/2009. Outline . Reference list To explore further Major applications

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ECE5320 Mechatronics Literature Survey on Sensors and Actuators Topic: Gyroscopes

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Ece5320 mechatronics literature survey on sensors and actuators topic gyroscopes l.jpg

ECE5320 MechatronicsLiterature Survey on Sensors and Actuators Topic: Gyroscopes

Prepared by: Daniel Ricsi

Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

Utah State University

E:[email protected]

2/26/2009


Outline l.jpg

Outline

  • Reference list

  • To explore further

  • Major applications

  • Gyro principal

  • Gyroscopes

  • Types of gyros

  • Gyro performance

  • Gyro parameters

  • Specifications of CRS03-02

  • MicroStrain 3DM-GX1

  • Benchmarking: Fiber-optic gyro

  • Mayor applications

  • Final Remarks

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators


Reference list l.jpg

Reference list

  • http://web.mac.com/ryo_watanabe/iWeb/Ryo%27s%20Holiday/Gyro%20Sensor.html

  • http://www.motusbioengineering.com/sensor-comparisons-technical-note.htm

  • http://metrology.hut.fi/courses/S-108.4010/2007/Spring_2007_MEMS_JKa.pdf

  • http://automation.tkk.fi/attach/AS-84-3145/Gyros.pdf

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators


To explore further l.jpg

To Explore Further

  • http://www.microstrain.com/3dmgx1.aspx

  • http://www.microstrain.com/inertia-link.aspx

  • http://www.xbow.com/Inertial_home.aspx

  • http://www.vti.fi/en/

  • http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=4245717

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators


Gyro principal l.jpg

Gyro principal

  • Gyro is a type of inertial sensor

  • Based on conservation of momentum.

  • Gyro measures rotation

  • Measure angular velocity

    • Radians/sec

  • Integrating the velocity is possible obtain the angular position

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Gyroscope_operation.gif

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators


Gyroscopes l.jpg

Gyroscopes

  • Non-sensitive to magnetic disturbances. It can be used in environment where the magnetic field is not available

    • Mechanical gyroscopes

      • Based on conservation of momentum

      • Measure the changes in linear- or angular momentum

    • Optical gyroscopes

      • No moving parts (gravitation doesn’t affect)

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators


Mechanical gyroscopes l.jpg

Mechanical Gyroscopes

  • Based on conservation of momentum

    • Continuous angular movement

      • Mm. flywheel gyroscope

    • Oscillatory angular momentum

      • Employ a torsionally suspended mass oscillating back and forth at its natural frequency

    • Continuous linear momentum

      • Steady stream of fluid, plasma or electrons, which tend to maintain its established velocity

    • Oscillatory linear momentum

      • a set of discrete masses moving back and forth along a straight-line path

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators


Mechanical flywheel gyroscope l.jpg

Mechanical Flywheel Gyroscope

  • A rapidly spinning wheel or sphere with big inertia causes a gyroscopic precision, when turned

  • Rotor is rotated with electrical motor

  • Rotor on supported by low-friction bearings and in a gimbal

  • Both axis of the gimbal are perpendicular to the rotating axis

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators


Optical gyroscopes l.jpg

Optical Gyroscopes

  • Most promising sensors in the mobile robotics in near future.

  • Two laser beams are rotating opposite directions in a closed loop

  • When the beams are combined the rotation rate and direction can be calculated from the interference fringes

  • Five basic principles:

    • Active optical resonator

    • Passive optical resonator

    • Open loop fibre optic interferometer (anal.)

    • Closed loop fibre optic interferometer (digit.)

    • Fibre optic resonator

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators


Active ring laser gyro l.jpg

Active Ring-laser Gyro

  • Active optical resonator

  • Resonator is a laser itself

  • (active)

  • If gyro is rotated counter clock wise direction, the counter-clock wise beam is travelling slightly longer than the opposite beam

  • The change in the path length is proportional to the rotation rate

  • In very small rotation rates

  • there is a dead-band because of frequency lock-in

http://automation.tkk.fi/attach/AS-84-3145/Gyros.pdf

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators


Gyroscopes11 l.jpg

Gyroscopes

  • There are two basic classes of rotation sensing gyros:

    • Rate gyros

      • The output is relative to the angular speed

    • Rate integrating gyros

      • Indicate the actual turn angle or heading

      • The angle is relative (must have a initially referenced to a known orientation.

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators


Types of gyroscopes l.jpg

Types of Gyroscopes

  • Based on coriolis force

  • Vibrating wheel

    • Two axis, excitation around axis of symmetry

  • Vibrating bar gyro

  • Tuning fork gyro

  • Analog Devices

    • Signal conditioning

http://metrology.hut.fi/courses/S-108.4010/2007/Spring_2007_MEMS_JKa.pdf

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators


Gyro performance l.jpg

Gyro Performance

  • Classification according to bias drift

  • Rate grade 10 – 10000 deg/h

  • Tactical grade 0,01 – 10 deg/h

  • Navigation grade <0,01 deg/h

  • Mechanical, optical (fog, laser ring), MEMS (tuning fork, vibrating ring)

  • Dynamic area: few Hz – 500Hz

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators


Gyro parameters l.jpg

Gyro Parameters

  • These parameters are not easy to calibrate

  • Drift (see previous slide) [deg/h]

  • Max angular speed [deg/s]

  • Dynamic resolution [Hz]

http://blogs.smh.com.au/radar/robot.jpg

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators


Crs03 02 l.jpg

CRS03-02

  • This is a small gyro

  • Output : Analog DC voltage centered at about 2.5VDC

  • Rate Range : +/-100 deg/sec

  • Scale Factor : 20mV/(deg/sec)

  • Bias (neutral) : 50% of Vdd

  • Number of Axis : 1

  • Bandwidth(-3dB, -90deg) : 10 Hz

  • Dimensions : 29 x 18 x 29 mm

  • Power supply (Vdd) : 5VDC +/-250mV

  • Current dissipation :  less than 50mA(150mA for initialization

http://www.davidson.com.au/products/

inertialsystems/image/crs03.jpg

CRS03-02

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators


Microstrain 3dm gx1 l.jpg

MicroStrain 3DM-GX1

  • Three angular rate gyros

  • Three orthogonal DC accelerometers

  • Three orthogonal magnetometers

  • Multiplexer, 16 bit A/D converter, and embedded microcontroller

  • Output its orientation in dynamic and static environments

  • Update rates of 350 Hz

  • http://www.microstrain.com/3dmgx1.aspx

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators


Benchmarking fiber optic gyro l.jpg

Benchmarking: Fiber-optic gyro

  • Optical phase tracking

  • Extremely high performance

    • Drift < 0.010/hr

http://metrology.hut.fi/courses/S-108.4010/2007/Spring_2007_MEMS_JKa.pdf

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators


Major applications l.jpg

Major Applications

  • Automotive Yaw Rate Sensor  

  • Global Positioning System (GPS) Dead-reckoning  

  • Fluxgate Compass compensation  

  • In-Car Navigation Systems  

  • Mobile dish antenna stabilized platform  

  • Mobile camera platform stabilization  

  • Robotics  

  • Simulators  

  • Telematics / Fleet-management  

http://co2calculator.files.wordpress.com/2008/10/segway.jpg

http://www.blogcdn.com/www.engadget.com/

media/2008/06/amp_robot_white_back.jpg

http://www.geology.smu.edu/~dpa-www/robo/nbot/nbot2/nb12.jpg

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators


Cont applications l.jpg

Cont. Applications

  • Remote Control Vehicles  

  • Dynamic measurement units  

  • Drive safety recorder (blackbox for car/marine)  

  • AGV, wheelchair  

  • Marine Satellite Compasses  

  • Angle Wrench  

  • Agricultural Tractors  

  • Physiotherapy / therapeutic Equipment  

  • 3-D input devices  

http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/ac/v-22-pic01461.jpg

http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_0x-_F8jtyJQ/ReDTlwO_2oI/AAAAAAAAALA/ZpVgYtZF8Vk/s320/carver.jpg

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators


Final remarks l.jpg

Final Remarks

  • All mechanical Gyros (mems also) can be affected by external noise like vibrations and magnetic field

  • The best bandwidth up to 400Hz is available with optical gyros (ring laser) with mechanical ones typically < 10-20Hz

  • MEMS and FOGs are the most used in robotics.

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators


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