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The worlds greatest Mathematician's

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### The worlds greatest Mathematician's

By: Brianna Michelle Fryman

Leonardo bIGOLLO Pisano

Leonardo’s father was a customs officer in Béjaïa or Bugia/Bugiait’s formal names. Where wax candles were sold from France.

He was born in Pisa Italy. Where the famous leaning tower of Pisa was created.

Leonardo grew up in Algeria and was taught his education by the Moors.

Leonardo traveled throughout the Mediterranean extensively for most of his life.

Leonardo soon realized the key importance to the Hindu Arabic system.

His nickname was Fibonacci. Which means the son of Bonaccio.

Leonardo Bigollo Pisano

In the year 1202 he wrote Liber abaci the "Book of Calculation” in which he noted the advantages and the disadvantages of the Hindu Arabic system. He has a statue created in his image. It’s location is in the Western gallery of Campasanto.

Leonardo was known for being a wealthy merchant.

Today people still use the Hindu Arabic system because of Leonardo. (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 ,0),

He had a number sequence named after him called the Fibonacci.

Leonardo Bigollo Pisano

Fibonacci was appointed by king Fredrik the II. Frederick became aware of Fibonacci’s work through the scholars at his court who had corresponded with Fibonacci since his return to Pisa around 1200.

These scholars included Michael Scotus who was the court astrologer, Theodorus Physicus the court philosopher and Dominicus Hispanus who suggested to Frederick that he meet Fibonacci when Frederick's court met in Pisa around 1225.

Johannes of Palermo, a member of Frederick II's court, presented a number of problems as challenges to Fibonacci.

Three of these problems Fibonacci answered and he gave solutions in Flos which he sent to Frederick II.

He was paid to teach the citizens math and to be an accountant for Frederick.

Leonardo Bigollo Pisano Bigollo Pisano

Leonardo covered geometry ,methods to construct and convert Egyptian fractions ,irrational numbers, the Chinese Remainder Theorem, and the Pythagorean triplets.

Leonardo introduced the decimal system,algerbra,and the lattice method. He introduced notation like.

He is known for his clever extension of this for quantities like 5 yards, 2 feet, and 3 inches.

Leonardo `Fibonacci was called "the greatest number theorist between

Diophantus and Fermat" and "the most talented mathematician of the Middle Ages.“

He also created the golden ratio still used today.

Leonardo Bigollo Pisano Bigollo Pisano

A certain man put a pair of rabbits in a place surrounded on all sides by a wall. How many pairs of rabbits can be produced from that pair in a year if it is supposed that every month each pair begets a new pair, which from the second month on becomes productive.

It was this problem that led Fibonacci to the introduction of the Fibonacci Numbers and the Fibonacci Sequence which is what he remains famous for to this day. He wrote books like Practica Geometriae(The Practice of Geometry), Liber Quadratorum (The Book of Square Numbers), Flos (The Flower), and Letter to Master Theodore.

SOURCES For leonardo bigollo pisano Bigollo Pisano

http://www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/Biographies/Fibonacci.html, https://ch1prd0210.outlook.com/owa/redir.aspx?C=GUo1BoOtjECIuu7jCyTpxrDUKzFlJdAIgtLCzjPXNjfHqtvrDvP57d-PQM_Uzg_CLVg74BVomPc.&URL=http%3a%2f%2fwww.ardacad.co.uk%2fmat%2fbiog%2ffibonacci%2ffibonacci.pdf

https://ch1prd0210.outlook.com/owa/redir.aspx?C=GUo1BoOtjECIuu7jCyTpxrDUKzFlJdAIgtLCzjPXNjfHqtvrDvP57d-PQM_Uzg_CLVg74BVomPc.&URL=http%3a%2f%2fen.wikipedia.org%2fwiki%2fFibonacci

http://www.maths.surrey.ac.uk/hosted-sites/R.Knott/Fibonacci/fibBio.html

René Descartes Bigollo Pisano

Descartes was born in La Haye,France on March 31,1596. He died in

Stockholm, Sweden February 11,1650 .

His father, Joachim, served in the Parliament of Brittany, France.

René ‘s mother Jeanne Brochard Descartes passed away in 1597. His father soon remarried and Descartes brother and sister and he were raised y their maternal grandmother and nurse.

He went to a religious college called La Flèche.

As a child he was sick extensively so he stayed in bed when doing most of his school work.

René Descartes Bigollo Pisano

It was his friend Isaac Beeckman, a Dutch mathematician, who encouraged Descartes to begin writing scientific theories on mathematics . Descartes was deeply influenced by three dreams he had in Ulm, Germany. He interpreted them to mean that all science is one and that its mastery is universal wisdom. To concentrate better on his work Descartes moved to Holland and lived there for twenty years. Descartes' first major work, was Rules for the Direction of the Mind, which was written in 1629 but was not published until 1701. It was devoted to mathematical demonstrations and mathematical problems. In 1637, he published "geometry", in which his combination of algebra and geometry gave birth to analytical geometry, better known as Cartesian geometry.

René Descartes Bigollo Pisano

Descartes relocated to Sweden to tutor Queen Christina in philosophy. But, working to hard was making his health worse. He later died of Phenomena. The Discourse on Method and was published in French along with the three essays in June 1637. Around this time his daughter, Francine, was born in 1635, her mother was a maid at the home of which Descartes was staying. Francine later died at the age five. Descartes was planning on making arrangements for her to live with relatives so she could receive a good education in France.

René Descartes Bigollo Pisano

Descartes’ theory provided the basis for the calculus of Newton and Leibniz, by applying infinitesimal calculus to the tangent line problem, thus permitting the evolution of that branch of modern mathematics. Descartes’ rule of signs is a method commonly used today to help determine the number of positive and negative roots of a polynomial. He also created Cartesian geometry which uses algebra to describe geometry. And the notation which uses superscripts to show the powers or exponents and a way to indicate the squaring of a square.

René Descartes Bigollo Pisano

He also made the contribution to math by making the beginning letters of the alphabet used as data and the last letters used as variables or unknowns which is still used today. He also invented Cartesian coordinate system which is commonly used in our society today to help located points on a plane .

Sources Bigollo Pisano

http://fabpedigree.com/james/grmatm2.htm

http://www.castingoutnines.net/2010/02/05/rene-descartes-contribution-to-math/http://www.kcvs.ca/martin/math/math499/projects/descartes/Descartes%20contributions.pdf

Emilie du Châtelet Bigollo Pisano

She was born in Paris on December 17, 1706. She was encouraged to pursue mathematics by a family friend, M. de Mezieres. At the age of nineteen she married a thirty-four-year-old man named Marquis du Châtelet. During the first two years of their marriage, Emilie gave birth to a boy and a girl, and later to a son when she was twenty-seven. She had an affair with a man named Marquis de Saint-Lambert and gave birth to his child. But she remained good friends with voltimor after the affair.

Emilie du Châtelet Bigollo Pisano

Her father was Louis Nicolas Le Tonnelier de Breteuil. He was an official at the Court of Louis XIV at Versailles with property in Paris and also land in Touraine. She died of extreme heat and was pregnant at the time and her baby died as well. WhenChâtelet passed on her husband wrote the lady he was cheating on Châtelet with her name was Mme Denis.

Emilie du Châtelet Bigollo Pisano

Most of her writings are used under Madame la Marquis duchastellet. Her full name was Gabrielle Emilie LeTonnelier de Breteuil du Chatelet Lomont. She was born to Alexandra Elizabeth de Froulay and Louis Nicolas Le Tonnelier de Breteuil. One of Châtelet ‘s husbands Voltaire was responsible for calling her du Chatelet. Her husband's name was the Marquis du Chastellet.

Emilie du Châtelet Bigollo Pisano

Châtelet translated Mandeville’s The fable of the bees and added additional information to it as well. She submitted her work to the Academie des Sciences in Paris even though she lost ,her work was still used in the newspaper. She helped translate several books for other mathematicians so that others could learn and grow form these discoveries.

Emilie du Châtelet Bigollo Pisano

She transformed Geometry into Calculus. She translated Isac Newton's piece Principia Mathematica and helped explain the mathematical process of figuring out the answers and she wrote a three volume book about a German mathematician named Gottfried Leibniz. She helped prove that women are just as intellectual as men. Also that women could sit in mathematical debates and women can be mathematicians just like men can.

Sources Bigollo Pisano

http://www.agnesscott.edu/lriddle/women/chatelet.htm

http://www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/Biographies/Chatelet.html

http://threesixty360.wordpress.com/2008/09/09/mathematician-of-the-week-emilie-du-chatelet/

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