Final defeat of the indians
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FINAL DEFEAT OF THE INDIANS. INTRODUCTION. INDIAN POLICY : EXPULSION AND EXTERMINATION CLASH OF TWO CULTURES WHITES VIEW INDIANS AS AN OBSTACLE TO BE REMOVED. BY 1830’S INDIANS REMOVED. 1831 THE BLACK HAWK WAR 1832 CHEROKEE WIN DECISION IN WORCESTER V GEORGIA.

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FINAL DEFEAT OF THE INDIANS

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FINAL DEFEAT OF THE INDIANS


INTRODUCTION

  • INDIAN POLICY : EXPULSION AND EXTERMINATION

  • CLASH OF TWO CULTURES

  • WHITES VIEW INDIANS AS AN OBSTACLE TO BE REMOVED.


BY 1830’S INDIANS REMOVED

  • 1831 THE BLACK HAWK WAR

  • 1832 CHEROKEE WIN DECISION IN WORCESTER V GEORGIA.

  • PRES. JACKSON ORDERS THEM REMOVED.


THE TRAIL OF TEARS 1838

  • 1600O INDIANS FORCED TO MARCH FROM GEORGIA TO OKLAHOMA

  • 1500 DIE ALONG THE TRAIL OF TEARS.


THE FINAL CHAPTER

  • THE PLAINS INDIANS RESIST

  • GOVERNMENT SETS UP TWO MAIN RESERVATIONS

  • OKLAHOMA AND THE BLACK HILLS


THE SAND CREEK MASSACRE 1864

  • COLORADO AND THE CHEYENNE

  • “FRIENDLY INDIANS” AND “HOSTILES.”

  • BLACK KITTLE AT SAND CREEK


COLONEL JOHN CHIVINGTON

  • NOV 29TH 1864

  • SLAUGHTER “FRIENDLY INDIANS”

  • CHIVINGTON: “NITS MAKE LICE.”


CUSTER AT THE WASHITA 1867

  • CUSTER ATTACK VILLAGE AND SLAUGHTERS MORE CHEYENNE

  • CLAIMS A GREAT VICTORY.

  • BLACK KETTLE IS KILLED.


CUSTER’S LAST STAND JUNE 1876

  • PROSPECTOR INVADE BLACK HILLS SEEKING GOLD

  • CUSTER & 7TH CAVALRY ARE SENT TO PUNISH INDIANS

  • CUSTER IS FRUSTRATED.


MORE…

  • SCOUT SPOT AN INDIAN CAMP, THEY BELIEVE IS SMALL.

  • CUSTER DOES NOT HAVE HIS FULL FORCE.

  • DIVIDES HIS MEN FOR THREE PRONGED ATTACK.


MORE…

  • CUSTER WITH 264 MEN ATTACK THE SETTLEMENT.

  • SURPRISED TO FIND 3000 WARRIORS.

  • INDIANS LEAD BY SITTING BULL AND CRAZY HORSE.


MORE…

  • CUSTER & 7TH WIPED OUT.

  • CUSTER’S OFFICERS COURT MARSHALED.

  • THIS WAS REALLY THE INDIANS LAST STAND.


CHIEF JOSEPH 1877

  • NEZ PERCES OF WASHINGTON & OREGON

  • JOSEPH TRIES TO LEAD HIS PEOPLE TO CANADA

  • 1300 MILE TREK

  • STOPPED 30 MILES FROM BORDER.


JOSEPH’S SURRENDER

  • HEAR ME MY CHIEFS….


JOSEPH ON PEACE

  • IF THE WHITE MAN WANTS PEACE…


HELEN HUNT JACKSON A CENTURY OF DISHONOR

THE DAWES ACT 1887

GOAL TO PROMOTE ASSIMILATION

REFORM AND INDIAN POLICY


THE WEST FRONTIER

AFTER THE CIVIL WAR


FRONTIER THE WESTERN

AFTER THE CIVIL WAR


THE FRONTIER IN 1865

  • 100TH MERIDIAN

  • MINNESOTA TO TEXAS

  • 1500 MILES TO THE PACIFIC OCEAN

  • ONLY A SMALL SETTLEMENT AT SANTA FE.


MORMONS IN UTAH

  • THE MAIN WHITE SETTLEMENT AT SALT LAKE.

  • BRIGHAM YOUNG LED THEM THERE IN THE 1840’S

  • CALLED IT DESERET.


THE WEST WAS SETTLED IN 25 YEARS

  • CENSUS BUREAU IN 1890

  • DECLARE THE FRONTIER CLOSED.

  • BY 1912 ALL OF THE WEST ORGANIZED INTO STATES.


SOME NUMBERS…

  • BETWEEN 1607 & 1870, 407 MILLION ACRES SETTLED.

  • BETWEEN 1870 & 1900, 430 MILLION ACRES SETTLED.

  • 6 MILLION PEOPLE MOVE WEST BETWEEN 1865 & 1900


THERE ARE TWO REGIONS OF THE WEST

  • 1)THE GREAT PLAINS FEW TREES & LESS THAN 20 INCHES OF RAIN PER YEAR.

  • 2) THE GREAT BASINROCKIES TO PACIFIC RANGE.

  • POOR SOIL & SCARE WATER.


FRONTIER THE WESTERN

AFTER THE CIVIL WAR


DESPITE PROBLEM

  • THESE REGIONS ARE SETTLED BY 1900

  • NEW INVENTIONS AND NEW AGRICULTURAL TECHNIQUES MAKE SETTLEMENT POSSIBLE.


TRANSPORTATION IN THE WEST

  • WAGON TRAINS- CALLED COMPANIES DRAWN BY OXEN

  • ORGANIZED AS JOINT STOCK COMPANIES.

  • LEAD BY A MAJOR, BUT DEMOCRATIC IN NATURE.


THE STAGECOACH

  • FOUNDED IN 1850

  • 6 HORSES WITH STATIONS ALONG THE WAY.

  • THE BUTTERFIELD COMPANY THE MOST FAMOUS.

  • DIFFICULT & DANGEROUS.


THE PONY EXPRESS 1860

  • RAPID DELIVER OF MAIL

  • HIGH ADVENTURE.

  • THE TELEGRAPH MAKES THE PONY EXPRESS OBSOLETE.


THE TRANSCONTINENTAL RAILROAD

  • CONGRESS AUTHORIZES IT IN 1862 -- COMPLETED IN 1869

  • UNION PACIFIC AND THE CENTRAL PACIFIC.

  • BY 1893 FIVE TRANSCONTINENTAL OPERATING.


VARIOUS FRONTIERS

  • 1) HUNTER TRAPPERS BLAZED THE TRAILS.

  • 2) MINER’S FRONTIER 1849

  • 3) CATTLE FRONTIER 1870’S

  • 4) PIONEER FRONTIER (HOMESTEAD ACT 1862)


MORE…

  • 5) EQUIPPED FARMERS, USED THE RAILROAD TO SHIP STAPLE CROPS (WHEAT & CORN, ETC.)


A CLOSER LOOK…

  • HUNTER TRAPPERS

  • THE MOUNTAIN MEN – JIM BRIDGER, JEREMIAH JOHNSON, KIT CARSON

  • SCOUTED & MAPPED THE WEST. LED THE WAY.


THE MINING FRONTIER

  • CALIF. GOLD RUSH 1849

  • BROUGHT 1OO’S OF THOUSANDS WEST.

  • ROUTES BY SHIP OR THE OVERLAND TRAIL.


THE OVERLAND TRAIL

  • STARTS AT INDEPENDENCE, MO.

  • CROSSED THE PLAINS

  • UP THE ROCKIES

  • ACROSS THE GREAT PLATEAU

  • OVER THE SIERRA NEVADA MTS.

  • FINALLY TO CALIFORNIA.


EARLY MINERS

  • PLACER GOLD FOUND WITH PICK & SHOVEL & PAN.

  • LATER CAME HARD ROCK MINING.

  • MINING BECAME “BIG BUSINESS.”


NEW DISCOVERIES

  • NEVADA THE COMSTOCK LODE. LARGEST SILVER & GOLD STRIKE.

  • COLORADO 1859 “PIKES PEAK OR BUST!”

  • MARK TWAIN’S ROUGHING IT


MORE…

  • 1857 BLACK HILL OF SO. DAKOTA “DEADWOOD GULCH”

  • WILD BILL HICKOCK & CALAMITY JANE.

  • VIGILANCE COMMITTEES


MORE DISCOVERIES…

  • BUTTE, MONTANA SITE OF ANACONDA COPPER CORP.

  • GUGGENHEIM FAMILY GAINS MONOPOLY ON COPPER.

  • TRIVIA: A GUGGENHEIM DIED WITH THE TITANIC


THE CATTLE FRONTIER 1870’S

  • NEED IN EAST FOR MEAT

  • WILD CATTLE IN TEXAS

  • THE LONG DRIVES. CATTLE AT THE RAILHEAD WORTH $35 EACH.

  • 1ST “LONG DRIVE” UP THE SEDALIA TRAIL 260,000 HEAD


OTHER TRAILS

  • CHISHOLM TO ABILENE, KA

  • THE WESTERN TRAIL TO DODGE CITY

  • GOODNIGHT LOVING TRAIL TO DENVER

  • ONCE RAILROAD SPREAD DRIVES END.


CATTLE RANCHING

  • RANCHES BECOME CATTLE FARMS

  • RELY ON FEDERAL OPEN RANGE TO GRAZE CATTLE.

  • CATTLEMEN CHALLENGED BY “SOD BUSTERS.”


FARMER’S FRONTIER

  • HOMESTEAD ACT 1862

  • 160 ACRES FREE IF YOU IMPROVE IT AND LIVE ON IT FOR 5 YEARS.

  • WILLIAM GILPIN’S VISION: “THE GT. PLAINS CAN BE A GARDEN.”


PROBLEMS

  • NO TREES TO BUILD WITH.

  • ANSWER: SOD HOUSE CONSTRUCTION

  • NO FUEL. ANSWER: BURN BUFFALO CHIPS.

  • LIMITED WATER: ANSWER: DEEP WELLS & WINDMILLS.


JOSEPH GLIDDEN’S INVENTION

  • BARBED WIRE (1874) MAKES FENCING POSSIBLE.

  • EQUAL TO COTTON GIN IN IMPACT


HOMESTEAD ACT’S WEAKNESS.

  • ON PLAINS & HIGH DESERT 160 ACRES IS NOT ENOUGH LAND.

  • NEED 640 ACRES.

  • 1877 DESERT LAND ACT

  • THE TERMS OF THE ACT:


TERMS…

  • $160 DOWN, $1 PER ACRE

  • TO BE PAID OVER 3 YEARS.

  • FARMER MUST INSTALL IRRIGATION.


OKLAHOMA 1889

  • THE LAST LAND RUSH APRIL 22ND , 1889

  • BOOMERS AND SOONERS


CENSUS REPORT 1890

  • DECLARES THE FRONTIER IS CLOSED.

  • THERE IS NO LONGER A DISCERNIBLE LINE OF FRONTIER.

  • REPORT INSPIRES FREDERICK JACKSON TURNER TO DEVELOP THE FRONTIER THESIS.1893


Turner Thesis – Closing of the Frontier

  • Frederick Jackson Turner

    • Frontier shaped America by stimulating individualism, nationalism, and democracy

    • Free land had operated as a safety valve for easterners looking for land

    • No more land, no more safety valve

    • Frontier is closed


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