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Basic Computer Concepts Software. Software: can be divided into:. Ø. systems software or system programs applications software or application programs. v v. Types of Computer Software. Ø. Software: Systems and Applications. * Property of STI Page 1 of 18. Basic Computer Concepts

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BasicComputerConcepts

Software

Software:canbedividedinto:

Ø

systemssoftwareorsystemprograms

applicationssoftwareorapplication

programs

v

v

TypesofComputerSoftware

Ø

Software:SystemsandApplications

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BasicComputerConcepts

Functionsofan

OperatingSystem

OperatingSystems

Ø

v

v

collectionofsystemprogramsandroutines

thatresideinthecomputer’smemory

functions:

•Scheduleinputandoutputoperations

•Scheduleworkofjobsaccordingto

priority

•Communicatewiththehumanoperator

•Handleinterruptionsandmonitor

systemstatus

•Logthejobsthatarefinishedand

currentlybeingexecuted

•Controlsystemaccessanddata

securityfunctions

•Facilitateinlocatinganddebugging

errors

•Handlemultiprogramming,sothat

severalprogramscanrunatthesame

time

Software:SystemsandApplications

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BasicComputerConcepts

Functionsofan

OperatingSystem

OperatingSystems

Ø

v

v

v

storedinasecondarystoragedeviceknown

asasystemresidencedevice

intheearlydayswhenmagnetictape

drivesarestillusedasstoragedevices,

operatingsystemsthatarestoredin

magnetictapesarecalledTapeOperating

Systems

iftheoperatingsystemisstoredina

magneticdiskitiscalledaDiskOperating

System(DOS)

ResidentStorageDevice

Software:SystemsandApplications

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BasicComputerConcepts

Structureofan

OperatingSystem

Software:SystemsandApplications

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BasicComputerConcepts

ProgramsthatMakeUp

anOperatingSystem

v

v

ControlPrograms-managetheoverall

systemoperationsandperformtaskssuch

asscheduling,input/outputhandling,

monitoringofsystemstatusand

communicationwiththeprogrammer

•SupervisorProgram

•Input/OutputControlSystem

ServicePrograms-aresubprogramsor

routinesthatarefrequentlyusedbythe

programmer

•LanguageTranslatorPrograms

•LibrarianPrograms

•UtilityPrograms

•DiagnosticPrograms

Software:SystemsandApplications

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BasicComputerConcepts

SurveyofanOperating

System

MS-DOS

TheWindowsFamilyofOperating

Systems

•Windows1.0,2.0,3.1and3.11

•WindowsNTandWindows2000

•Windows95,98,MEandXP

UNIXandLinux

v

v

v

Software:SystemsandApplications

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BasicComputerConcepts

SurveyofanOperating

System

What’sthebest-sellingoperatingsystem?

MicrosoftWindowsisbeingusedonover80

percentoftheworld’spersonalcomputers.

Windowshasevolvedthroughseveralversions,

sinceitsintroduction.

Ø

Ø

Software:SystemsandApplications

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BasicComputerConcepts

SurveyofanOperating

System

Software:SystemsandApplications

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BasicComputerConcepts

SurveyofanOperating

System

What’sthebest-sellingoperatingsystem?

Windows95,Windows98,WindowsMEand

WindowsXPprovidebasicnetworking

capabilities,makingthemappropriatefor

smallnetworksinhomesandbusinesses.

WindowsNT,Windows2000,andWindowsXP

Professionalaretypicallyclassifiedasserver

operatingsystems.

Ø

Ø

Software:SystemsandApplications

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BasicComputerConcepts

SurveyofanOperating

System

IsMacOSsimilartoWindows?

Bothoperatingsystemsbasetheiruser

interfacesonthegraphicalmodelthatwas

originatedatXeroxPARC.

BothMacandWindowsinterfacesuseamouse

topointandclickvariousiconsandmenus.

Bothalsoprovidebasicnetworking

capabilities.

Thoughtheselectionisnotasvastasthe

collectionofWindows,acollectionofsoftware

isavailableforcomputersthatrunMacOS.

Ø

Ø

Ø

Ø

Software:SystemsandApplications

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BasicComputerConcepts

SurveyofanOperating

System

AreUNIXandLinuxthesame?

UNIXgainedagoodreputationforits

dependabilityinmulti-userenvironments.

ManyversionsofUNIXbecameavailablefor

mainframesandmicrocomputers.

Linuxisdistributedunderthetermsofa

GeneralPublicLicense(GPL),allowing

everyonetomakecopiesfortheirownuse,to

giveothers,ortosell.

Ø

Ø

Ø

Software:SystemsandApplications

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BasicComputerConcepts

SurveyofanOperating

System

AreUNIXandLinuxthesame?

Linuxsharesseveraltechnicalfeatureswith

UNIX.

Linuxisconsideredtobeapopularoperating

systemfore-mail,web-serversandlocalarea

networks.

Linuxhasbeengainingpopularityasadesktop

operatingsystem.

Ø

Ø

Ø

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BasicComputerConcepts

SurveyofanOperating

System

WhydoIkeephearingaboutDOS?

DOSwasthefirstoperatingsystemandits

crypticcommand-lineuserinterfaceleftan

indelibleimpression.

TheremnantsofDOSstilllingerintheworldof

personalcomputers,becauseitprovidespart

oftheoperatingsystemkernelforWindows

versions3.1,95,98andME.

UsersrarelyinteractwithDOS,becauseitis

wellhiddenbytheWindowsgraphicaluser

interface.

DOSisnothingmorethanfootnotesinthe

historyofthecomputerindustry.

Ø

Ø

Ø

Ø

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BasicComputerConcepts

ApplicationSoftware

AnOverviewofApplicationSoftware

WordProcessing

Ø

atermusedinmanipulatingtextorwords

inafile

v

Basicfeatures:

vinserttext

Ø

deletetext

cutandpaste

copy

pagesizeandmargins

searchandreplace

wordwrap

Print

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

Advancedfeatures:

Ø

filemanagement

fontspecifications

footnotesandcross-references

graphics

headers,footers,andpagenumbering

layout

merges

spellchecker

tablesofcontentsandindexes

thesaurus

windows

WYSIWYG

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

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BasicComputerConcepts

ApplicationSoftware

MicrosoftWord

Software:SystemsandApplications

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BasicComputerConcepts

ApplicationSoftware

Spreadsheet

Ø

v

v

computerprogramsespeciallydesignedto

displayinformationgraphicallyandallow

filesanddatatobemanipulatedeasily

anelectronicledgersheetonwhichdata

areentered

MSExcelSpreadsheetProgram

Software:SystemsandApplications

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BasicComputerConcepts

ApplicationSoftware

DatabaseManagement

Ø

applicationsoftwarepackagesthat

computerizetheeverydaytaskof

recording,processing,filing,and

manipulationofinformationinthe

database

Database:acollectionofinformation

organizedinsuchawaythatacomputer

programcanquicklyselectdesiredpieces

ofinformation(ordata);likeanelectronic

filingsystem

v

v

Basic features:

Ø

Toaddordeleteinformationwithinafile

Tosearchafileforsomeinformationbased

onsomecriteria

Toupdateinformationfromwithinafile

Tosortinformationintosomeorder

Togenerateaprintoutorreports

v

v

v

v

v

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BasicComputerConcepts

ApplicationSoftware

GraphicsSoftwarePackages

Ø

designedtoallowtheusertodisplay

imagesonacomputermonitorortoprint

theimagesonaprinter

v

Examplesofgraphicapplications:

Ø

paintprograms

illustration/designprograms

presentationgraphicssoftware

animationsoftware

CADsoftware

desktoppublishing

v

v

v

v

v

v

Software:SystemsandApplications

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