Biological effects of radiation. JEOPARDY!. SOMATIC VS. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS. DIRECT AND INDIRECT ACTION. BENEFICIAL EFFECTS?. ENTERING THE BODY. CALCULATING EXPOSURE. 200. 200. 200. 200. 200. 400. 400. 400. 400. 400. 600. 600. 600. 600. 600. 800. 800. 800. 800. 800.
DIRECT AND INDIRECT ACTION
ENTERING THE BODY
How ionizing radiation enters the body depends on this.
What is the source of the ionizing radiation?
These types of radiation can pass directly through the body.
What are x-rays and gamma rays?
These are the main entry pathways for materials contaminated with radioisotopes to enter the body.
What are the nose and mouth, around the eyes and any breaks or cuts in the skin?
These particles are fairly large in size so they do not penetrate very far into human tissue.
What are alpha particles?
Radioactive isotopes migrate in the body in the same way as these.
What are stable isotopes of the same elements?
In Canada, this unit is used to measure ionizing radiation.
What is the sievert (Sv)?
This is how much ionizing radiation the average Canadian will receive in one year.
What is 0.0027 sieverts or 2.7 millisieverts (mSv)?
This amount of ionizing radiation over a short period would prove fatal (to a significant part of the population).
What is 5 sieverts?
This organization sets the maximum limit to the public’s exposure to ionizing radiation in Canada.
What is the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC)?
This is the maximum number of millisieverts per year allowed for people working in the nuclear industry.
What is 50 millisieverts?
Low doses of a harmful toxin may actually have this beneficial effect.
What is a “hormetic” effect?
The relationship between radiation dose and increased incidence of cancers is called this.
What is the “risk coefficient”?
This model is the basis for regulations on radiation around the world.
What is the “linear non-threshold” model (LNT)?
This approach for protection purposes assumes all radiation can be detrimental and should be avoided or kept to this level.
What is “as low as reasonably achievable” (ALARA)?
Even though radium paint was put on these, consumption of some of the paint has not lead to bone cancer.
What are glow-in-the-dark watches?
Alpha particles, beta particles or x-rays create ions which can physically break one or both of these in DNA.
What are sugar phosphate backbones?
The breaking of phosphate backbones or base pairs in DNA is considered this type of action.
What is direct action?
These are the two basic types of mutations.
What are base substitutions and frameshift mutations?
Double-strand breaks in DNA are difficult to repair and can lead to this.
What are mutations and cell death?
Ionizing radiation can also impair or damage cells indirectly by creating these.
What are free radicals?
Humans and potatoes have this in common.
What are 46 chromosomes?
In many cancers, these are somehow damaged, causing out of control cell reproduction.
What are instructions which turn off cell growth?
This type of injury occurs to organisms exposed to high levels of radiation but does not include reproductive cells.
What is somatic injury?
This is damage to reproductive cells due to exposure to high levels of ionizing radiation.
What is genetic injury?
These are symptoms of somatic injury.
What are sickness, hair loss and internal bleeding?
The Category is:
This is the scientific definition of a sievert.
What is one joule (J) of energy deposited in one kilogram (kg) of mass multiplied by a “weighting factor” ?
…and thank you for playing