acute diarrhoea and gastroenteritis in childhood
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Current Health Problems in Students’ Home Countries. Acute Diarrhoea and Gastroenteritis in Childhood. By: Afifah binti Othman Masrina binti Hj. Mhmad Tahar. Diarrhoea in the 21 st Century. Second most common cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide

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acute diarrhoea and gastroenteritis in childhood

Current Health Problems

in Students’ Home Countries

Acute Diarrhoea and Gastroenteritis in Childhood

By:

Afifah binti Othman

Masrina binti Hj. Mhmad Tahar

diarrhoea in the 21 st century
Diarrhoea in the 21st Century
  • Second most common cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide
  • WHO estimation (2002), diarrhoeal disease results in:
    • 2.5 million people die annually, mostly children
    • 1.6 million children <5yrs old (in developing countries)
slide3
In the U.S.
    • 211-375 million episodes of diarrhoeal disease occur annually
    • 73 million physicians consultations
    • 1.8 million hospitalization
    • Over 3000 death
  • In Malaysia (2000)
    • About 2 million episodes of diarrhoea annually among children < 15 yrs old
    • 5% of total mortality among children <5 yrs old
what is diarrhoea
What is Diarrhoea?
  • An increase in the frequency of bowel movements or a decrease in the form of stool (greater looseness of stool)
  • Changes in frequency of bowel movements and looseness of stools can vary independently of each other, changes usually occur in both.
slide5
Chronic diarrhoea

Generally lasts > 3 weeks

Common causes: IBS, AIDS, bacterial outgrowth of small int., Colon cancer, Chron’s disease

Acute diarrhoea

lasts a few days or up to a week

  • IMPORTANT !!!
  • distinguish between acute and chronic diarrhoea
    • >>>different diagnostis tests, different treatments

X

common causes of acute diarrhoea

Usually cause explosive, watery diarrhoea

  • Typically last only 48-72hrs
  • Usually no blood and pus in stool

Rotavirus

Common Causes of Acute Diarrhoea
  • Infection – highly contagious
    • Viral gastroenteritis (“stomach flu”)
slide7

E. Coli bacteria

  • Contaminated food or water
  • Usually affect small kids
  • Bacterial enterocolitis
    • Sign of inflammation – blood or pus in stool, fever
slide8

Salmonella enteritidis bact

  • In contaminated raw or undercooked chicken and eggs
  • Bacterial enterocolitis
    • Sign of inflammation – blood or pus in stool, fever
slide9

Shigella bacteria

Campylobacter bacteria

  • Bacterial enterocolitis
    • Sign of inflammation – blood or pus in stool, fever
slide10

Cryptosporidium

  • in contaminated water – can survive chlorination
  • Giardia lamblia
  • in contaminated water
  • Usually not associated with inflammation
  • Parasites
slide11

Common Causes of Acute Diarrhoea – cont.

  • Food Poisoning
    • Brief illness cause by toxins produced by bacteria
    • Cause abdominal pain, vomitting
    • Cause SI secrete high amnt of water – diarrhoea
    • Some bacteria produce toxins in food before intake or in intestine after food is eaten
    • Symptoms usually appear within sev. hours
slide12

Food Poisoning

  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • Produces toxins in food before it is eaten
  • Usually food contaminated left unrefrigerated overnight
slide13

Food Poisoning

  • Clostridium perfringens
  • Multiplies in food
  • Produces toxins in SI after contaminated food is eaten
slide14

Common Causes of Acute Diarrhoea – cont.

  • Traveller’s Diarrhoea
  • Drugs / medications
slide15

Complications of Diarrhoea

  • Dehydration
    • Excessive loss of fluids and minerals (electrolytes) from the body
    • Common in infants and young children with viral gastroenteritis or bacterial infection
    • Kidney failure, eg in infection by E.coli
  • Electrolyte deficiency
  • Irritation to anus due to frequent passage of watery stool containing irritating substances
slide16

When Treatment is Needed?

  • Severe or prolonged episode of diarrhoea
  • Fever
  • Repeated vomiting, refusal to drink fluids
  • Severe abdominal pain
  • Diarrhoea that contains blood or mucus
  • Sign of dehydration
    • Dry, sticky mouth
    • Few or no tears when crying
    • Sunken eyes
    • Lack urine or wet diaper
    • Dry, cool skin
    • Fatigue or dizziness
slide17

Tests for Acute Diarrhoea

  • Measurement of BP in upright and supine post – demonstrate orthostatic hypotension, confirm dehydration
  • Moderate – severe diarrhoea, blood electrolytes
  • Examination of small amount of stool under microscope – if inflammation present, further test particularly for bacterial and parasitic infection
slide18

Treatment

  • Antibiotics or antiviral medications are not prescribed for cases of diarrhoea caused by virus or bacteria
  • Antibiotics may be given to very young children or children with weak immune system
  • In parasitic infection – antiparasitic medicine usually given
slide19

Treatment – cont.

  • Oral rehydration solutions (ORS)
    • Contain carbohydrate (glucose or rice syrup) and electrolytes (Na, K, Cl, citrate, HCO3-)
    • Infants and children
      • Infants with mild dehydration – ORS at home (with doctor recommendation)
      • Infants with moderate – severe dehydration, IV fluids at hospital
      • Avoid caffeine and lactose containing product
prevention
Prevention
  • Wash hands thoroughly before and after eating or when preparing the meals.
  • Make sure that the tools used for eating and preparing the meals are clean.
  • Cover our food or put them in the fridge to prevent any contamination.
slide21

References

  • Wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page

  • Medical Journal Malaysia VOL 62

http://www.mma.org.my

  • World Health Organization – WHO

http://www.who.int/topics/diarrhoea/en/

  • http://www.medicinenet.com/diarrhea/article.htm
  • http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/diarrhea/DS00292
  • http://www.kidshealth.org/parent/infections/common/diarrhea.html
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