MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY. By : Prof. Dr. Tien R. Muchtadi. DEFINITIONS. INTRODUCTION CLASSIFICATION OF MEMBRANE PROCESS TYPES OF MEMBRANE REJECTION COEFFICIENT NOMINAL MW CUT-OFF GENERAL MEMBRANE EQUATION. INTRODUCTIONS.
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Prof. Dr. Tien R. Muchtadi
J = |Δ P| - |ΔΠ|
(Rm + Rc + Rf‘)µ
J = |ΔP|/Rmµ
The advantage of cross-flow filtration over conventional filtration are :
Processing feed crossflow
Figure 1. The Concept of Cross-Flow Filtration
Membrane permeation rate
Figure 3. The time-dependence of membrane permeation rate duringcross-flow filtration : a. low cross-flow velocuty, b. increased cross-flow velocity, c. back-fushing at the bottom of each”saw-tooth”
Berdasarkan pada driving force yang digunakan :
Paling banyak digunakan untuk pengolahan produk pangan
Reverse osmosis, as form of water treatment, is a technology in its infancy. The first membrane was developed in 1958. In the years following, membrane technology has grown a great deal and will continue to grow in the future. In fact, some of the membranes that are currently in use may be obsolete in a very short time, in favor of some new membrane material that is more resistant to a particular fouling contaminant.
The reverse osmosis membrane is used for various applications from precious metal reclamation, to chemical reclamation, food processing nuclear waste reclamation, laboratory water purification, and on and on. We will limit our discussion to water purification and its laboratory applications.
To fully understand the technology of reverse osmosis, you must first understand the concept of normal osmosis. Simply put, in normal osmosis, water flows from a less concentrated solution through a semi-permeable membrane to a more concentrated solution (see figure 1). Reverse osmosis utilizes pressure to reverse normal osmotic flow, thus in reverse osmosis water flows from a more concentrated solution across semipermeable membrane to a less concentrated solution (see figure 2).
Tujuan percobaan :
Bahan : polimer polisulfon (PS), pelarut dimetyhl-acetamide (DMAC), aditif nourmal methyl pirolidon (NMP), dekstran (BM=71.400) dan polietilen glikol (BM= 20000)
Alat : alat separasi membran, alat casting, water bath, HPLC waters dan detektor refraktometer
Gambar 4. Diagram Alir proses pembuatan membran
Prosentase rejeksi dihitung dengan rumus :
Rejeksi (%) = [ 1-Cp/Cf ] x 100 %
Cp = konsentrasi solute pada permeate
Cf = konsentrasi pada feed
Kelebihan metoda separasi membran :
Substrat + enzim
Gambar 6. Prinsip separasi membran untuk imobilisasi enzim