Hazardous waste management hierarchy
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Hazardous Waste Management Hierarchy. SECURED LANDFILL . A controlled site for disposal of wastes on land , run in accordance with safety and environmental requirements laid down by a regulatory authority. A FACILITY WHERE . WASTES ARE PLACED PERMANENTLY IN SECURED MANNER

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Hazardous Waste Management Hierarchy

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Hazardous waste management hierarchy

Hazardous Waste Management Hierarchy


Hazardous waste management hierarchy

  • SECURED LANDFILL

  • A controlled site for disposal of wastes on land, run in accordance with safety and environmental requirements laid down by a regulatory authority


Hazardous waste management hierarchy

A FACILITY WHERE

  • WASTES ARE PLACED PERMANENTLY IN SECURED MANNER

  • WASTE IS ENCAPSULATED FROM THE ENVIRONMENT BY IMPERMEABLE BARRIERS/ LINERS

  • LEACHATE IS COLLECTED, REMOVED & TREATED THROUGHOUT ITS LIFE.


Hazardous waste management hierarchy

  • WHY LANDFILL ?

  • All hazardous waste treatment options result in residues and One of the safer methods for disposal of them

  • Best techno-economic option for some wastes.


Hazardous waste management hierarchy

SECURED LANDFILL FACILITY

  • Last Option

  • Primarily Containment of contaminants


Hazardous waste management hierarchy

  • TYPES OF LANDFILL

  • ATTENUATE & DISPERSE:

  • Sites where leachate and waste is allowed to escape into the environment at a controlled rate. Pollution is reduced by degradation and attenuation within the landfills and by dilution of the leachate in the aquifer


Hazardous waste management hierarchy

  • Containment : Sites are aimed at isolating wastes and leachate from the surrounding environment for a considerable time.

  • Archival : Sites are specifically engineered to contain wastes indefinitely, but also to permit later identification and retrieval.


Methods of landfill

METHODS OF LANDFILL

Co-disposal : Disposal with M.S.W or similar wastes to take advantage of attenuation processes occuring in such wastes; Critical assessment for compatibility

Mono-disposal: Disposal of wastes having same general physical and chemical form

Multi-disposal: Disposal of chemically different wastes in the same site


Hazardous waste management hierarchy

  • MULTI-BARRIER SYSTEM FOR SLF DESIGN

  • Barrier No: 1

  • Degradation or fixation of pollutants in the waste prior to disposal

  • Barrier No: 2

  • Suited location of the landfill site with regard to the geological/ hydro-geological situation of the area

    • Barrier No: 3

  • Leachate collection and treatment system


  • Hazardous waste management hierarchy

    • Barrier No: 4 : Bottom Liner System

    • Interface between waste body & subsoil hinders leachate percolation.

    • Barrier No: 5 Cover Liner System

    • Avoids penetration of surface and rain water into waste body avoiding formation of leachate

    • Barrier No: 6 Proper operation and maintenance of SLF

    • Barrier No: 7 Post Closure measures & Repairability of barriers


    Hazardous waste management hierarchy

    BASIC COMPONENTS OF LANDFILL

    • Impermeable Liner System on the base and side

    • Top cover

    • Leachate collection, removal and treatment scheme

    • Surface Water Control Systems

    • Other site infrastructure


    Landfill

    Landfill


    Why the liner is required

    Why the Liner is required ?

    • Isolate the waste body from the environment

    • Contain the toxic leachate within landfill

    • Prevent contamination of Land and Groundwater

    • Avoid remediation in future


    Which liner systems are available

    Which liner systems are available?

    • Mineralic

    • Geo-membrane

    • Composite (Mineralic + Geo-membrane)

    • Geo-synthetic Clay/ Bentonite Mats

    • Bituminous Membrane

    • Asphalt Concrete Liner


    Hazardous waste management hierarchy

    • BOTTOM LINER

    • Prevent migration of wastes or ‘by-products’ out of the landfill into subsoil, ground or surface water

    • Should have chemical properties, sufficient strength and thickness to prevent failure due to :

    • -Pressure gradients

      • Physical contact with the waste or leachate

      • Climatic conditions

      • Stress of installation and

      • Stress of daily operation


    Hazardous waste management hierarchy

    TYPICAL BOTTOM LINER COMBINATIONS

    • CLAY LINER ONLY

    • ASPHALTIC CONCRETE LINER

    • COMPOSITE LINERS

      • ONE CLAY LINER & ONE FLEXIBLE MEMBRANE LINER

      • ONE CLAY LINER & TWO FLEXIBLE MEMBRANE LINERS


    Hazardous waste management hierarchy

    Total Thickness # 45 - 60 cm


    Hazardous waste management hierarchy

    DOUBLE COMPOSITE LINER (AS PER CPCB GUIDELINE)


    Asphaltic concrete liner

    ASPHALTIC CONCRETE LINER

    WASTE BODY

    3 SEAL LAYERS

    2 BASE LAYERS

    FOUNDATION LAYER


    Hazardous waste management hierarchy

    USEPA SPECIFICATION FOR BOTTOM LINERS

    • Three type of liners are specified by USEPA

    • Flexible Membrane Liners (FMLs)

    • Compacted Clay Liners

    • Composite Clay Liners (FML + Compacted Low permeability soil liners)


    Materials for fmls

    MATERIALS FOR FMLs

    • Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene

    • Linear LDPE / Very LDPE

    • Polypropylene

    • Ethylene Inter polymer alloy

    • Neoprene

    • Poly Vinyl Chloride

    • Thermoplastic elastomers

    • HDPE


    Hazardous waste management hierarchy

    • Key factors considered for

    • selection of FML

    • Chemical compatability with waste leachate

    • Ageing and durability

    • Stress and strain characteristics

    • Ease of installation

    • Water permeation


    Hazardous waste management hierarchy

    • CLAY LINER –USEPA SPECIFICATION

    • Thickness of compacted clay bottom liner = 3 feet

    • Permeability of soil liners < 1 x 10-7 cm/sec

    • To achieve this, following characteristics of soil should be met.

    • Soil should have at-least 20% fines i.e. fine silt and clay sized particles

    • Plasticity Index (PI) > 1% (soils with PI higher than 30 to 40% are sticky and difficult to work within the field)

    • Coarse fragments should be screened to no more than about 10% gravel size particle.

    • No soil particles or chunks of rock larger than 1 – 2 inches in diameter.


    Hazardous waste management hierarchy

    • BLENDED SOILS –USEPA SPECIFICATION

    • On-site soils can be blended with imported clay minerals.

    • (e.g on-site sandy soils + imported sodium bentonite)

    • Calcium bentonite, lime, cement, clay soil from nearby or other areas ,etc are also used.

    • Clay soil is likely to form chunks and difficult and hence easier to blend on-site sandy soils with dry bentonite powder.


    Hazardous waste management hierarchy

    COVER LINER (AS PERCPCB GUIDELINE)


    Hazardous waste management hierarchy

    Slope 3%

    Cover Liner

    2 m

    Soil Bund

    2 m

    2:1

    A

    A

    0.5m

    375 m

    0.7 m

    Storm Water Drain Channel

    Section

    HDPE Liner

    Gravels


    Hazardous waste management hierarchy

    USEPA GUIDELINES FOR TOP LINER

    VEGETATIVE COVER – MIN. 60 CM THK

    (UPPER SLOPE : 2 TO 5 %

    SOIL DRAINAGE LAYER – MIN. 30 CM THK

    FLEXIBLE MEMBRANE LINER (MIN. 20 MILS )

    COMPACTED SOIL – MIN. 60 CM THK

    WASTE BODY


    Hazardous waste management hierarchy

    TOP LINER – NPC DESIGN

    VEGETATION

    2 X 25 CM THK MODERATELY

    COMPACTED SOIL

    2 X 25 CM THK WELL COMPACTED SOIL

    3 MM THK POLYESTER BASED

    MODIFIED BITUMINOUS FELT

    25 CM THK COMPACTED SOIL

    WASTE BODY


    Hazardous waste management hierarchy

    SIDE LINER – NPC DESIGN

    WASTE BODY

    MASTIC ASPHALT LAYER 2CM THK

    3 MM THK POLYESTER BASED

    MODIFIED BITUMINOUS FELT

    75 MM THK P.C.C 1:3:6

    COMPACTED SUBBASE


    Hazardous waste management hierarchy

    LEACHATE COLLECTION & REMOVAL

    • Drainage Layer

      • Granular (Sand or gravel, no fine, 2-5 cm dia particle, min.30 cm thk, min K=1 cm/s)

      • Synthetic (nets, mats, geo-textiles)

    • Pipes and Appurtenances

    • Cushions

    LEACHATE STORAGE & TRANSFER

    Epoxy coated RCC Sump with level control submersible pump

    LEACHATE TREATMENT


    Hazardous waste management hierarchy

    SURFACE WATER CONTROL SYSTEMS

    • RUN-OFF

    • Collect and control run-off from active and inactive portions of the landfill from 24 hour – 25 year storm

    • Collect and contain leachate contaminated storm water that accumulates in active fill area

    • Protect integrity and effectiveness of landfill cover system

    • RUN-ON

    • Intercept and divert run-on away from active and closed land fill cells from peak discharge of 25 year storm

    • Minimise site erosion


    Hazardous waste management hierarchy

    GROUND WATER MONITORING

    • Designed to detect contaminant leakage shortly after its occurrence and before significant contamination of ground water

    • Hydraulically up-gradient and down-gradient wells

    • Placed around perimeter of fill area within several hundred feet of SLF

    • No. of wells- Site specific, depends on Size of SLF, Hydro-geology

    • Minimum Requirements

      • 1 well in up-gradient (Background)

      • 3 wells in down-gradient


    Hazardous waste management hierarchy

    • IDENTIFICATION OF WASTES THAT CAN BE LANDFILLED

    1.Wastes that will definitely need to be landfilled as no other options are practicable

    e.g. Asbestos

    2. Wastes that could be safely landfilled without prior treatment

    e.g. Bio-degradable wastes – technically possible; Better options often exist.


    Hazardous waste management hierarchy

    3.Wastes which could be landfilled after pre-treatment

    e.g., Liquid wastes; heavy metal salts.Pre-treatment options can include detoxification, precipitation, solidification as appropriate

    4. Wastes that should not be landfilled

    e.g., Explosives, Compressed toxic gases, Liquid PCBs for technical reasons


    Hazardous waste management hierarchy

    CRITERIA FOR DISPOSAL OF H.W IN SLF

    • To be dewatered up to the level of 60 – 70% solids

    • Following are not be allowed to dispose of directly in SLF if waste

      • Is a fluid, slurry or paste

      • Is delivered under pressure or under vacuum

      • Has an obnoxious odour

      • Reacts with moisture to generate high heat or gases

      • Is highly inflammable (flash point < 40oC)

      • Contains very strong oxidising agents

      • Contains volatile substances of significant toxicity


    Hazardous waste management hierarchy

    CRITERIA FOR DISPOSAL OF H.W IN SLF

    • Contains > 10 mg/Kg Cyanide in the original sample

    • Contains > 10 mg/kg Chromate in the original sample

    • Contains > 0.5% (Wt.) Mercury

    • Falls below a pH value of 2, if eluated 1/10

    • Contains > 10 mg/1 of water soluble Arsenic in a 1/10 eluate

    • Contains > 10 mg/1 of water soluble Mercury in a 1/10 eluate

    • Contains > 3% solvents free from Halogen

    • Contains more than 0.5% Halogenated solvents

    • Contains > 0.1% poly-halogenated substances of Significant toxicity (PCBs)


    Criteria for hazardous waste landfilling in germany due to technical instructions for hwm 1991

    Criteria for Hazardous Waste Landfilling in Germany due to “Technical Instructions for HWM” 1991


    Hazardous waste management hierarchy

    ELUATE QUALITY


    Hazardous waste management hierarchy

    ELUATE QUALITY


    Cpcb criteria for non acceptance of waste in slf

    CPCB CRITERIA FOR NON- ACCEPTANCE OF WASTE IN SLF

    • Bulk or non-containerized liquid hazardous waste

    • Slurry type hazardous waste containing free liquid or waste sludge

    • Incinerable / compostable waste or any other type of waste from which energy recovery is feasible

    • In-compatible wastes not to be placed in same landfills


    Cpcb criteria for non acceptance of waste in slf1

    CPCB CRITERIA FOR NON-ACCEPTANCE OF WASTE IN SLF

    • Wastes in-compatible with liner material without containerisation

    • Extreme hazardous waste (e.g radioactive waste)

    • Non-hazardous waste (e.g MSW) not to deposited in HW Landfills


    Hazardous waste management hierarchy

    LIST OF INCOMPATIBLE WASTES

    E ExPLOSIVE

    F FIRE

    GF FLAMMABLE GAS

    GT TOXIC GAS

    H HEAT GENERATION

    S SOLUBILISATION

    OF TOXINS


    Cpcb specified design requirements for liners

    CPCB SPECIFIED DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR LINERS

    • Stability at base of landfill (in soft soil) & in sides

    • Strength to withstand construction loads/ vehicle loads

    • Permeability and material properties as specified in guidelines

    • Compatibility with leachate & waste

    • Transition filters bt. Waste & leachate collection layer to prevent clogging of leachate collection layer


    Criteria for haz waste landfills

    CRITERIA FOR HAZ. WASTE LANDFILLS

    • CONSTRUCTION & OPERATION CRITERIA

    • INSPECTION, MONITORING & RECORD KEEPING CRITERIA

    • POST-CLOSURE CRITERIA

    • FINANCIAL ASSURANCE CRITERIA

    • CONTIGENCY PLAN FOR EMERGENCIES


    Criteria for haz waste landfills1

    CRITERIA FOR HAZ. WASTE LANDFILLS

    • LOCATIONAL CRITERIA

    • SITE SELECTION

    • SITE INVESTIGATION CRITERIA

    • PLANNING & DESIGN CRITERIA

    • WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA

    • LANDFILL LINER CRITERIA & COVER CRITERIA


    Cpcb specified design requirements for liners1

    CPCB SPECIFIED DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR LINERS

    • Protection layer / transition layer between each component of liner system may be provided

      • Between Leachate collection layer & HDPE

      • With Silt / local earth (15 cm thk) / Geo-textile

    • Adequate clay additive in amended soils


    Hazardous waste management hierarchy

    • ASPECTS CONSIDERED IN THE DESIGN OF SLF

    • Selection of appropriate liner system for SLF

    • Desired design period of the SLF in years

    • Type of landfill desired

      • Pit (cell wise development) / continuous

  • Depth of hard stratum from G.L.

  • Total lay out size & total area of the SLF


  • Hazardous waste management hierarchy

    • Nearest G.W.T. reported in monsoon season

      • Depth of landfill below ground level

  • Height of stock pile above ground level

  • Inner side, bottom – longitudinal & transverse slopes

  • Provision and layout of roads, storm water drain, green belt, office, security, lab, weigh bridge, Vehicle washing area, leachate sumps, etc around the SLF


  • Hazardous waste management hierarchy

    BROAD DESIGN BASIS FOR SECURED LANDFILL FACILITY

    • Quantity of sludge generated

    • Evolving specific sludge generation factor (I.e. ton of sludge / ton of product)

    •  Sludge generation for envisaged production in future

    • Characteristics of sludge generated

    • Specific gravity of dry solids in sludge

    • Bulk density of raw sludge


    Hazardous waste management hierarchy

    •  Sludge treatment requirements

      • Moisture content of sludge

      • Results of Eluation tests

      • Chemical composition of sludge

  •  Moisture content, density & other characteristics of sludge

  • after treatment

  • SITE CRITERIA

    • Topography of the site area

    • Geological / Hydro-geological situation of the site (characteristics of the subsoil, presence of aquifers layers, ground water table etc.)

    • Rainfall situation in the region of the site area


  • Hazardous waste management hierarchy

    AREA REQUIREMENT FOR SLF

    Height of Landfill = 5- 20 m

    Infrastructure, support facilities & green belt = 15 -20 % of landfill

    Landfill size classification

    Small : < 5 hectares

    Medium : 5- 20 hectares

    Large : > 20 hectares


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