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Chemistry. ELEMENTS. Matter: Anything that has mass and takes up space . Matter is made up of substances called Elements. PROPERTIES OF ELEMENTS 1. Physical : Color, density, hardness, streak, etc. 2. Chemical : Reaction with other substances. Atom.

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Elements
ELEMENTS

  • Matter: Anything that has mass and takes up space.

    Matter is made up of substances called Elements.

    PROPERTIES OF ELEMENTS

    1. Physical: Color, density, hardness, streak, etc.

    2. Chemical: Reaction with other substances


Atom

  • Atom: Smallest unit of an element.

    Same chemical and physical properties.

  • Protons

  • Neutrons

  • Electrons

    Mass of particlep+= n°>>e¯

    1.6726 × 10¯²⁷ Kg 1/1840 of p+

Nucleus


Periodic table
Periodic Table

  • 92 Naturally occurring

  • 25 Synthetic ( man-made )

    Atomic Mass = # of p + plus # of n°

    Atomic Number = # of p + = # of e ¯


Questions
Questions

H

Name the following elements:

  • Lightest element:

  • Heaviest Naturally occurring element:

  • Element with 18 protons:

  • Element with 11 electrons:

  • Element named after this guy!

U

Ar

Na

Es


Practice atomic number of p of e atomic mass of p plus of n
PracticeAtomic Number = # of p + = # of e ¯ Atomic Mass = # of p + plus # of n°

92

146

92

14

28

14

10

10

10

16

32

16

18

22

18


HW

  • The Elements


Chemical reactions
Chemical Reactions

  • Exchange/sharing of electrons between elements.

  • Chemical reaction/bonding of elements create new substances/compounds.

    water molecules




Energy level shell capacity
Energy Level/Shell Capacity

Electron Capacity = 2 n² n = Energy Level


Bohr model
Bohr Model

Element Symbol

Atomic Number ______

Mass Number ______

Number of p+ ______

Number of n ______

Number of e- ______


Bohr models
Bohr Models

  • Complete Bohr models for the following elements:

  • Oxygen

  • Carbon

  • Sodium

  • Helium

  • Chlorine

  • Aluminum

  • Potassium

  • Nitrogen


Bohr model1
Bohr Model

Element Symbol

Atomic Number ______

Mass Number ______

Number of p+ ______

Number of n ______

Number of e- ______

Number of e- in the last level ______


Valence electrons
Valence Electrons

  • Half Arcs

Ve¯

Electrons on the outermost shell

14

8

4

2

Si

Valence electrons


Valence electrons1
Valence Electrons

  • The number of electrons on the outermost shell determine if an element is going to react with other elements or not.

  • If the outermost shell is not full Reactive

  • If the outermost shell is full Non- Reactive/Inert


Review
Review

Reactive

needs 5 more e¯

14: Silicon 2, 8, 4

needs 4 more e¯

Reactive



Types of chemical bonds
Types of Chemical Bonds

  • Covalent Bonding

    Valence electrons are shared between atoms.


  • Ionic Bonding

    Valence electrons are exchanged.

    Atoms either gain or lose electrons.


Electrical charge of stable atoms
Electrical Charge of Stable Atoms

  • Nitrogen atom

  • 7 p+

  • 7 n °

  • 7 e ¯

  • Nucleus: p++ n° = 7 ⁺ + 0 = 7 ⁺

  • e¯ = 7 ¯

  • Stable Atom: Nucleus + e¯= 7 ⁺ + 7 ¯

  • Total charge = 0


Silicon

Nitrogen

Iron


Atomic charge practice
Atomic Charge Practice

5

17

8

13

18

8

6

14

13

5

17

8

5

17

13

8

17

13

8

5

0

0

0

0


Stable atoms
Stable Atoms

  • Electrical Charge of Stable Atom is always ZERO.

  • Equal number of p+ and e¯ = 0 charge


Ions

  • When atoms have different numbers of positive

  • ( ) and negative ( ) charges, the atom will have an electrical charge.

  • Electrically charged atoms are called ions.

protons

electrons


Ions

  • Ionic Bonding lose/gain e ¯

  • If an atom loses e ¯

  • If an atom gains e ¯

e¯< p+

ion+

e¯ > p+

ion ¯


11

Na

# p =

# e =

8

O

# p =

# e =


< p+

+

ion +

1

8

Lose e

2

11

Na

# p+= 11

# e¯ = 11

8

O

# p+ = 8

# e¯ = 8

=10

-

e¯ > p+

8

2

6

ion ¯

Gain e

= 10


Isotopes
Isotopes

Isotopes

  • Atoms of the same element ( equal number of protons ) that have different number of neutrons.

  • Ex. Chlorine ¹⁷ Chlorine ¹⁷

    17 p +,17 n ° 17 p +,18 n °

    34 Atomic mass 35


Radioactivity
Radioactivity

  • An Isotope with unequal number of protons and neutrons in its nucleus is unstable. It will release particles ( p + / n ° ) from its nucleus in order to end up with equal numbers of p + and n °. This process of radiation ofparticles from the nucleus is called Radioactivity.


Radioactivity1
Radioactivity

  • As an isotope releases particles, its atomic mass and its atomic number can change. This means that it can change ( Decay ) into atom of another element.

    Uranium Lead

Decay

Unstable atom

Stable atom


Half life
Half-Life

  • The time it will take for half of the atoms of the original Parent element to decay into atoms of another element Daughter, is called Half-Life.

    Parent ½ Daughter+ ½ Parentunstable atoms stable atoms

TIME


Half life1
Half-Life

TIME

Parent ½ Parent, ½ Daughter

U-238U-238 Pb-206

Daughter

Pb-206


Uranium 238 to lead 206
Uranium-238 to Lead-206




Physical states of matter
Physical States Of Matter

Physical States

Matter can not be destroyed.

Matter can change into physical forms of Solid, Liquid, & Gas.

The physical state of a matter depends on the strength of the

atomic bonds compared to the energy of the atoms.

The more energy atoms/particles absorb the more they vibrate

and try to move.



Solid
Solid

  • Low particle energy/motion

  • Strong bond

  • Particles remain in same place.

  • Dimensions remain unchanged.

  • Definite Shape & Volume


Liquid
Liquid

  • Melting Point Particles absorb energy bonds are now weaker compared to the particle motion.

  • Particles can move around but are still held together by the bonds.

  • Distance between the particles do not change.

  • Definite Volume

  • No definite Shape


Gas

  • Boiling Point Particles absorb more energy.

  • Evaporation No bonds exist.

  • Particles are free to move.

  • No definite Dimensions.

  • No definite Shape or Volume


Plasma
Plasma

  • Highly energized gas particles

  • Colliding

  • Loss of e ¯ particles

  • Ions+

  • Glowing cloud of ions+ and e ¯

  • Lightning, Neon lights, fire


Thermal energy
Thermal Energy

GainLose

SOLID

LIQUID GAS

Melting

Sublimation

Freezing

Frost

Condensation

Evaporation




Practice
Practice

  • Lab: Elements of the Earth’s Crust Pie Chart


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