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TO-DO: 9/15/14. WARM-UP: Write a good thesis sentence using the following topic. How did Hinduism have a direct affect on Indian society in the classic period? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wCzuAMVmIZ8 NOTES: CHINA YOU HAVE A QUIZ TOMORROW!

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To do 9 15 14

TO-DO: 9/15/14

  • WARM-UP: Write a good thesis sentence using the following topic. How did Hinduism have a direct affect on Indian society in the classic period?

  • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wCzuAMVmIZ8

  • NOTES: CHINA

  • YOU HAVE A QUIZ TOMORROW!

  • HOME WORK: STUDY INDIA & CHINA (Make sure you are completing the reading guides as you go along)


Thesis sentence

THESIS SENTENCE

Your thesis is the road map for writing your paper. Make sure you write about what your

thesis says! Make sure you have a good thesis to write on!

  • STEP 1

    • What is your topic?

    • Create a question about your topic.

  • STEP 2

    • Find reasons (try to find 3)

    • Find 3 things that support your topic

  • STEP 3

    • Combine steps 1 & 2

    • Put it all together

    • MAKE SURE YOU ANSWER YOUR QUESTION!


Classical china

Classical China


Legalism daoism confucianism

Legalism, Daoism, Confucianism


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  • What were conditions like in China that led to the rise of new philosophies and religions?


China during the zhou dynasty

China during the Zhou Dynasty

  • Mandate of Heaven

  • Notion that China should be ruled by one dynasty

  • „Warring States“ (403-221 BCE), perceived as time of chaos, disorder

  • Traditional Chinese religion includes belief in heaven as a supernatural force, worship of ancestors, belief in demons and spirits, gods, yin and yang that balance each other


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  • What is Legalism?


Legalism

LEGALISM:

  • Philosophy to rule a state

  • Humans seen as stupid and shortsighted

  • Need to be ruled through incentives or punishment

  • Only social classes of value are peasants and soldiers

  • Official doctrine of Qin dynasty under emperor Shihuangdi (221-206 BCE)

  • ** Merchants in china were below pesants and were scorned by chinese eletes


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  • Who is Confucius?


Confucius

Confucius

  • Born to an aristocratic family in northern China (551-479)

  • Tried to solve China´s problems by creating a new philosophy about state and society

  • Could never find a position, but had many followers

  • Students collected his teachings - „Analects“


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  • What are the main ideas of Confucianism?


Main beliefs

Main Beliefs

  • Moral example of superiors should restore order

  • Five (mostly unequal) relationships: father-son, older brother-younger brother, husband-wife, ruler-subject, friend-friend

  • Goal: Harmony in society

  • Superior needs to be sincere, benevolent, show genuine concern for other, inferior responds with respect and obedience

  • Ren (kindness, benevolence), Li (propriety, respect), Xiao (filial piety)


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  • What impact does Confucianism have on Chinese society and culture?


Impact on society and culture

Impact on Society and Culture

  • People have capacity for improvement

  • Education is key to moral betterment (liberal arts – language, literature, history, philosophy, ethics)

  • Stress on rituals and ceremonies (provide stability)

  • Chinese bureaucrats educated in Confucian philosophy (from Han dynasty onwards 200BCE)

  • **LIKE HINDUISM, CONFUCIANISM SUPPORTS THE SOCIAL DIFFERNCES IN CHINA


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  • Examination system (students had to pass tests to achieve positions in government – merit system)

  • Education in theory open to everyone, in reality only for those with enough resources

  • Family model for state

  • Filial piety and ancestor veneration (sacrifice, visiting graves, erecting tablets and shrines)

  • Seen as training ground for reverence to emperor

  • ** The education system established a hierachy


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  • Women inferior to men, education so that they can better serve a husband and raise sons, some control but behind the scenes

  • Justifies inequalities in China

  • Rulers have to follow moral norms or forfeit Mandate of Heaven (upheaval, replaced by other dynasty)

  • Secularism of Chinese elite society (magic and spirits of little help to educated people)


Sacred sites of confucianism

SACRED SITES OF CONFUCIANISM

(1) Ch'u-fu (Qufu)--Confucius's=

birthplace, a pilgrimage site;

(2) Beijing – site of the Temple of

Heaven, location of Imperial

ceremonies performed on

behalf of the nation;

(3) Beijing – location of T'ien-an

Men Square

(4) Mt. T'ai and Mt. Wu-T'ai—holy

mountains valued by all three

major religions of China; sites

where officials offered prayers

on behalf of the people;

(5) Korea

(6) Japan


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  • The Symbol means total harmony, righteousness, in your own life and in your relations with your neighbor.


Beijing the forbidden city

BEIJING: THE FORBIDDEN CITY

THEME: LOCATION

THE CONFUCIAN CITY AS A MODEL OF THE UNIVERISE


Confucius and mencius say

CONFUCIUS AND MENCIUS SAY:

"The greenery on Niu Mountain was once beautiful, but since it was near a large city, it was attacked by lumberjacks. How could it retain its beauty? Still, by breathing in the sunlight and rain, how could new buds and sprouts not appear? But then cattle and sheep came and fed themselves, and by the time they were done, it was completely barren. If people saw this barrenness, they might have imagined that there had never been any greenery. How could the mountain be inherently like this? In the case of people, how could they lack the mind of Humanity and Righteousness? But the daily damaging of the goodness of their mind is just like the lumberjacks on the mountain. Being chopped down day after day, how can it manifest its natural beauty? One may breathe in fresh air day and night, but if you allow the enjoyment of evil doings with people to close in on you, the air gets thin, and your daytime activities stifle you. Because of this stifling, the fresh air is insufficient. Being insufficient, your goodness of mind is not nourished, and there will be little difference between you and the animals. People see our animalistic nature and assume that we have never had great endowments. How could this be our real nature? Therefore, if it is properly nourished, there is nothing that will not grow. If it is not nourished, there is nothing that will not die. Confucius said: 'Use it and you will keep it; ignore it and you will lose it. “


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  • What were the origins of Daoism?


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  • Founded in 6th century BCE by legendary Laozi

  • Wrote supposedly Daodejing (The Way and its Power)

  • Ideas more explicitly expressed in 4th century BCE (warring states!)


What are daoism s main ideas

What are Daoism’s main ideas?


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  • Withdrawal into the world of nature

  • Behavior should be spontaneous, individualistic, and natural

  • Focus on nature, not society

  • Dao – the way of nature, a principle that underlies everything (the “force”)


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  • What impact does Daoism have on Chinese culture?


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  • People encouraged to withdraw from society, lead simple, uneducated life

  • Contemplation in nature, mediation

  • Complementary to Confucianism – one could be both

  • Popular Daoism adopts magic, fortune telling, search for immortality (leads to discoveries in chemistry)


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  • Provided ideology for Yellow Turban Rebellion (184-204 CE)

  • Yellow Turbans demanded utopian society without landlords and government


Daoist symbols

DAOIST SYMBOLS


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  • Tai Chin (1388-1452). Returning Home in Spring


Sacred sites of daoism

SACRED SITES OF DAOISM

Legend

(1) Home of Lao Tze

(2) Tao Te Ching revealed at Mt. Chung-nan Shan

(3) Founding of the Celestial Masters

(4) Mao shan

(5) Dragon and Tiger Mountain

(6) Taoist pilgrimage site


The dao te ching chapter 39

THE DAO TE CHING, CHAPTER 39

  • The things which from of old have got the One (the Tâo) are--

    Heaven which by it is bright and pure;

    Earth rendered thereby firm and sure;

    Spirits with powers by it supplied;

    Valleys kept full throughout their void

    All creatures which through it do live

    Princes and kings who from it get

    The model which to all they give.

    All these are the results of the One (Tâo).

    If heaven were not thus pure, it soon would rend;

    If earth were not thus sure, 'twould break and bend;

    Without these powers, the spirits soon would fail;

    If not so filled, the drought would parch each vale;

    Without that life, creatures would pass away;

    Princes and kings, without that moral sway,

    However grand and high, would all decay.


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  • When and where and how was the first empire in China created?

  • Describe Shihuangdi’s actions in government. How did they help to unify the country?

  • How did Shihuangdi try to reform Chinese society?

  • What is legalism?


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  • Ruler of Qin, Shihuangdi conquerors all of China by 221 BCE

  • Imperial policies: drafted hundreds of thousands to build roads, fortifications (Great Wall of China)

  • Persecutes Confucian and Daoist scholars, follows legalist doctrine

  • Centralized bureaucracy

  • Standardized script, currency, weight, measurements, legal standards

  • Dynasty collapses shortly after Shihuangdi’s death in 210 BCE


Qin dynasty

Qin Dynasty


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  • When and how did the Han dynasty come into being? How long did it last?

  • Describe the government structure of the Han Empire. How did that differ to other classical civilizations?

  • Describe the extent of the Han empire. What cultural implications did that have?


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  • Rebellions against Qin

  • Rebel leader Liu Bang establishes Han dynasty in 206 BCE

  • Measures of political control

  • Maintaining large army, conscripted soldiers

  • Early Han expands into Central Asia under Emperor Wudi

  • Taxes on agriculture, trade, craftsmen

  • Government monopolies on iron and salt production

  • Centralized bureaucracy (examination system, imperial academy in Chang’An)


The han dynasty

The Han dynasty


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  • The problem of land distribution

  • Free peasants important for government for taxes and labor conscription

  • Large landowners can increase their holdings

  • Poorer peasants work as tenants who owe 50% of their harvest or as slaves on large estates

  • Banditry increases, sometimes peasant rebellions


Society during the han dynasty

Society during the Han dynasty

  • Aristocracy: large landowners

  • Scholar gentry: bureaucrats educated in Confucian thought

  • Peasants: free peasants, tenants,

  • Some slaves

  • Merchants: could be wealthy, but looked down upon by landowners and bureaucrats

  • Patriarchal society: filial piety, five relationships


Technology

Technology

  • Big improvements in iron technology, lead to bigger yields in agriculture and larger population

  • Development of compass

  • Silk (weaving done mostly by women, provided extra income for peasants)


Compass from the han dynasty

Compass from the Han dynasty


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  • Emperor Qin Shi Huangdi´s terracotta army


Confucianist thought about state

Confucianist Thought about State

  • As a ruler, King Wen abided in humanity. As a minister he abided in reverence. As a son he abided in filial piety. As a father he abided in deep love. And in dealing with the people of the country, he abided in faithfulness.

  • From „The Great Learning“

  • Question: What should good government be based on according to the source above? How does it reflect the ideas of Confucianism?


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  • If the ruler has virtue, he will have the people with him. If he has the people with him, he will have the territory. If he has the territory, he will have wealth. And if he has wealth, he will have its use. Virtue is the root, while wealth is the branch.

    • From „The Great Learning“


Coins issued during the reign of emperor wu r 141 87 bce

Coins issued during the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BCE)


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  • Pair of Footsoldiers, Western Han Dynasty

  • Earthenware with traces of pigments


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  • Military Watchtower, Eastern Han Dynasty

  • Low-fired earthenware with green glaze


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  • Prancing Horse, Eastern Han dynasty

  • Earthenware with traces of pigment


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