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The Renaissance. Monday 9/23. Share your responses regarding the impact of the crusades and the plague on the Feudal System. Brain Storm- How was the Feudal system effected at the end of the Middle Ages?. How did the Crusades impact the Feudal system?

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The Renaissance


Monday 9/23

Share your responses regarding the impact of the crusades and the plague on the Feudal System.


Brain Storm- How was the Feudal system effected at the end of the Middle Ages?

  • How did the Crusades impact the Feudal system?

    • Thousands of barons and knights mortgaged or sold their lands in order to raise money for a crusading expedition.

    • Other Lords failed at organizing good heirs to their land.

    • Private warfare, die out. Which puts less concern on protection.

    • The peasant's experience

    • Increased the power of kings

    • Accelerated the rise of cities since the feudal lords needed the cities’ help to finance their trips.

  • How did the Plague impact the Feudal system?

    • Death toll- labor shortages gave leverage to the serfs.

    • The fear of death overrode the fear of the lords.


Do Now: on a sticky note write one idea of how the Renaissance begins or why it does

.. Slap it on the board!!


The Renaissance … and more

- Italy: Culture, Art, and Writing

  • The people of the era

  • The innovations of the era (printing press; sci revolution

  • Changes in the Church (Reformation)

  • Explorers!


Middle Ages-

devotion to Religion and a strict social system

Renaissance-

rebirth of classical learning and a belief in humans as individuals

Plague and Crusades-

Lords out of power

Power to the Merchant class

Decline of Feudalism

Peasants demand freedom

Development of the Renaissance

Merchants from the East= rich Italian cities

The “hunger” the crusades created

Cities!!

Greek and Roman guidance in arts ,thinking and writing

Wealth=status

(not birth)


The Renaissance- 1300s -1500


A New World view:HUMANISM – “YOU CAN DO IT!”

Out with religion in with human experience!

  • Education should encourage a person’s creative powers

    • Petrarch in Italy

      • Assembled a library of Greek & Roman writings


Activity 1

1. Brain storm 2 words that comes to mind when you think of Italy.

2. Read the Short Passage-

Come up with 2 points why Italy would be a great home for the Renaissance.


Why Italy?

1. Italians became aware of glorious past

  • Art & architecture surrounded them

  • Catholic Church supported many artists & scholars


2. Geography Plays a Role

  • location on Mediterranean = trade with Muslim world

  • Trade = wealth that fueled Renaissance

  • Scientific & technical knowledge was exchanged


3. The Italian City-States: Where it all began

  • No strong central ruler in Italy

  • Independent city-states develop

    • Run by powerful & wealthy families like the Medicis in Florence

    • These families supported the arts


Summary

Create a poster advocating for one change you’d like to see during the Renaissance.


Homework

Complete the Diagram.

- Compare the Middle Ages to the Renaissance


Tues 9/24

Why Italy the Arts and Culture explosion!


Do Now: Why Italy?

1. Brain storm 2 words that comes to mind when you think of Italy

2. Read the Short Passage-

Come up with 2 points why Italy would be a great home for the Renaissance.


Why Italy?

1. Italians became aware of glorious past

  • Art & architecture surrounded them

  • Catholic Church supported many artists & scholars


2. Geography Plays a Role

  • Italy’s location on Mediterranean Sea encouraged trade with Muslim world

  • Trade provided wealth that fueled Renaissance

  • Scientific & technical knowledge was exchanged


3. The Italian City-States: Where it all began

  • No strong central ruler in Italy

  • Independent city-states develop

    • Run by powerful & wealthy families like the Medicis in Florence

    • These families supported the arts


Florence, Italy


Renaissance Art

  • Portraits were created of famous figures of the day, reflecting humanism

  • Renaissance artists studied the Greeks & Romans – brought back life-size statues

Donatello Sculpture ofGattamelata - 1447


Return to Realism

  • New techniques develop to make realistic humans & landscapes

    • Perspective – make distant objects smaller than those close to the viewer

    • Shading

    • Oil paints to reflect light

    • Study anatomy to make sculptures look more accurate


Great Artists of the Renaissance

  • Ninja Turtles

    • Leonardo

    • Michelangelo

    • Raphael

    • Donatello

    • Filippo Brunelleschi


Leonardo da Vinci

  • A true Renaissance man

    • Talented in painting, anatomy, music, architecture, & engineering


The Last Supper


Mona Lisa


Sketches of Leonardo


What are these?


Donatello

  • Sculptor

  • In bronze

  • David

    • Greek Influence


Artists Reading

Read the articles about the two artists.

For each (on your notes guide) write a few words about the artist and then the pieces he created.


Michelangelo

  • Another Renaissance man

    • Painter, sculptor, architect, & poet


Michelangelo's Pieta

  • Mary holds her dead son Jesus

  • Realism

    • ‘dead weight’

    • Body position

    • Restrained grief


Sistine chapel

  • Commissioned by Pope

  • Took 4 years to complete

  • Tells Biblical stories


Raphael

  • Known for his tender portrayals of Madonna, mother of Jesus


Summary Visual Analysis Raphael’s The School of Athens


Do Now

Read the handout on Renaissance, Classical, & Medieval Art. Make a chart that includes some of the features of each time period.


Where ART Thou?

  • In this game, student teams will compete against each other to see who can correctly identify the appropriate time period for the pieces of artwork that you will see today. You will use the charts you just created to help you identify the art as being either Classical, Medieval, or Renaissance. The team with the most answers correct will earn bonus points for your next quiz/test.


Machiavelli

What makes a good leader?


Writing for a New Society

  • Literature reflected curiosity of the times

  • Can we make men better?

    • SURE we can…

    • Birth of the ‘self help book’

      • Guide books for Renaissance men and women


Niccolo Machiavelli

  • Wrote The Prince

  • Guidebook for rulers on how to gain and keep power

  • He stressed that rulers should use whatever means necessary to achieve their goals


The Prince

  • Very controversial book

  • Some praised his book for taking a realistic approach to politics

  • Others criticized him and called it a “how to” book for tyrants


Machiavelli’s Successful Prince

  • Niccolo Machiavelli wrote a guide for rulers on how to gain and maintain power. Unlike ancient writers such as Plato, Machiavelli did not discuss leadership in terms of high ideals. Instead, his book The Prince looked at real rulers in an age of ruthless power politics. Machiavelli stressed that the end justifies the means. He urged rulers to use whatever methods necessary to achieve their goals. Machiavelli saw himself as an enemy of oppression and corruption, but critics attacked his cynical advice. Later students of government, however, argued that Machiavelli provided a realistic look at politics. His work continues to spark debate because it raises important ethical questions about the nature of government and the use of power.


Summary

Does your theory of a good leader match what Machiavelli imagined during the Renaissance. Discuss the comparisons (both similarities and differences)


Fri 9/27


WEBquest


Monday 9/30

Self help books


Do Now:A “How To” Book for Today

  • Pretend you are a writer setting out to create a “how to” guidebook. Your goal is to help people be successful in today’s world.

  • List at least five things that you would write about in your book that could help someone achieve success.


Baldassare CastiglioneThe Book of the Courtier(1528)

  • Perhaps most important work on Renaissanceeducation

  • Specified qualities necessary to be a true gentleman

    • included physical and intellectual abilities and leading an active life

  • Rejected crude contemporary social habits (e.g. spitting on the floor, eating without utensils, wiping one’s nose with one’s sleeve, etc.)


Continued…

  • Described the ideal of a “Renaissance man”

    • who was well-versed in the Greek and Roman classics

    • an accomplished warrior

    • could play music, dance

    • had a modest but confident personal demeanor

Swagger.


Famous Castiglione Quotes

“Employ in everything a certain casualness which conceals art and creates the impression that what is done and said is accomplished without effort and without its being thought about. It is from this, in my opinion, that grace largely derives.”

“Outward beauty is a true sign of inner goodness. “


How To

Get right into your groups.

Complete your book and turn it in!


Northern Renaissance


Do Now

Think of a major invention from the past 100 years. How has this invention dramatically changed the way we live our lives?


Renaissance in the North


The Printing Revolution

  • Around 1455, Johann Gutenberg invents the printing press with a movable type

  • Printed the first complete edition of the Bible


How does this change Europe?

  • Before printing press, only a few thousand books in all of Europe

    • By 1500, 15-20 million books copied by press

  • Books now cheaper & easier to produce

  • More people learned how to read

    • Printed books gave new ideas


Northern Renaissance Artists

  • Northern Renaissance began in Flanders

    • From here it spread to Spain, France, Germany, & England


Jan van Eyck

  • A Northern European Artist

  • The Arnolfini Wedding

  • First to use oil paint

  • Very detailed

  • Lots of symbolism


Albrecht Durer

  • Mix of Italian and Northern style

  • Expert in proportion

  • Often placed himself in paintings

  • Mastered engraving

    • Etching a design on a metal plate using acid


More..


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0i3d63k-ZLg


Do Now:

How did Italian and Northern art compare?


Northern Humanists & Writers

  • Humanist scholars stressed education & classical learning.

    • Wanted to encourage religious reform

  • Writers began using the vernacular.

    • Everyday language of the people


Desiderius Erasmus

  • Dutch priest & humanist

  • Believed that the Bible should be translated into the vernacular

  • Disturbed by corruption in the Church

    • Calls for reforms

    • In Praise of Folly


The Ultimate Renaissance Writer William Shakespeare

  • Most famous play-write

  • Wrote 37 plays that are still performed around the world.

  • Universal themes in everyday settings

  • Explored the complexity of the individual in his works


Shakespearean Language

  • Characters spoke in a language that common people could understand & appreciate

  • Invented over 1,700 new words for the English language

    • Deck (a pack of cards)

    • Stout (strong, healthy)

    • Journal (daily)


Globe Theatre


Interior & Exterior Views of the Globe Theatre in London

1599


Sir Thomas More

  • Pressed for social reform

  • Wrote Utopia– describes a perfect society where men & women live in peace and harmony

  • Everyone is educated & crime does not exist


What is a Utopia and What is you version?


Let’s Review

  • How did the Northern Renaissance differ from the Italian Renaissance?


The Reformation

Quiz Review


Indulgences

  • A spiritual favor from God

    • Release from sin

  • Later became buying your way

    out of hell and purgatory

    • Very popular idea

      • “Get Out of Jail Free” Card

      • Can use before or after sinning


Hell…it’s eternity

Heaven…the place to be

Purgatory… your soul is in limbo


Indulgences come in many forms…

  • Can be a…

    • Prayer

    • An act of kindness

    • Touching a relic

    • Later….can be purchased

      • A way for the church to make money!


Do Now: Take out your Reflection Chart


The Protestant Reformation

Vs.

Martin Luther – German monk

Pope Leo X


Reformation Begins

  • Key word is REFORM

  • People want to reform the Church

    • BRAINSTORM WHY???

  • New ways of thinking about religion emerge


Why Reform?

  • Clergy were breaking vows

  • Popes are corrupt

    • Fought for political power & land

  • Church took money from people

    • INDULGENCES

  • CHURCH IS MESSING WITH….

    SALVATION!


Slogan for Tetzel – “As soon as the coin in the coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs.”


Martin Luther

  • Became a monk & professor in Germany

    • Saw corruption in the Church

    • Last straw was INDULGENCES

    • Outraged by Tetzel


95 Theses

  • 95 complaints against indulgences

  • Nailed to church door at Wittenberg


Reading Activity

  • What complaints does Luther have?

  • Does Luther have any suggestions for how religion should be carried out? Explain?

    Do Now: Share with a partner


Luther in a nutshell…

  • Faith alone = salvation

  • Bible is ONLY religious source

  • Let clergy marry

  • Banned indulgences, confession, & pilgrimages

    • Luther excommunicated on 1521 by Pope Leo X


Charles V calls him to the Diet of Worms (Meeting for German Princes)

OUTLAW


Luther’s Ideas Spread


New Holy Wars

  • Series of wars fought between German Lutheran princes & the RCC

    • Fought over land

  • Peace of Augsburg

    • the religion of the ruler should be the religion of the region


Let’s Review

  • List three of Luther’s ideas that were different than those of the Catholic Church.


Switzerland’s Reformation


John Calvin

  • Priest & lawyer

  • Published book that explained

    how to set up & run a Protestant

    Church

  • Believed in PREDESTINATION


Predestination

  • Idea that God had long ago decided who would gain salvation

  • World divided into two kinds of people

    • Saints & Sinners


Calvin & the Community

  • Calvin sets up theocracy in Geneva

    • city-government run by church leaders

  • “Chosen people”

  • Stressed hard work, discipline, & honesty

  • Harsh punishments for

    fighting, swearing,

    drunkenness, & gambling


Areas shaded purple show where Calvinism spread


HW- Use p 64 Complete the Reading and fill out the Chart


Do Now – 10/12/10

  • What is predestination? What new reformer came up with this idea?


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dt5AJr0wls0

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L4piapxaT0k


England’s Reformation- Henry VIII

Rooted in politics, not religion

Originally a Catholic

Strong supporter of RCC – condemns Martin Luther & other reformers


One little problem…..no male heirs…

  • Married to Catherine of Aragon

    • Only had one daughter (Mary)

    • In 1527, asks Pope to annul his marriage

      • Pope says “no”

Henry’s daughter Mary


Henry Breaks With the Church

  • He takes control of English Church from the pope.

  • In 1533, Henry annuls his marriage and marries Anne Boleyn.

  • Anne has daughter, Elizabeth

Natalie Portman as Anne Boleyn


Act of Supremacy

  • In 1534, Parliament passes the Act of Supremacy

  • Henry is supreme head of Church of England

    • Henry sells off church lands

    • Kills opposition


After Henry’s Death

  • Henry dies in 1547

  • Only one surviving son, 9 yr. old Edward VI

    • Makes Church of England more Protestant

    • Book of Common Prayer created  outlines church service


Here Comes “Bloody Mary”

  • Edward VI dies as a teenager

  • Mary Tudor becomes the new queen

    • Wants to return England to Catholicism

    • Killed hundreds of Protestants by burning them at the stake


Queen Elizabeth – The Sensible Ruler

  • Mary dies in 1558, so Elizabeth becomes queen

  • Sought a compromise between Protestants & Catholics

    • Becomes known as Elizabethan Settlement


Review

  • Why did Henry VIII decide to break away from the Catholic Church?


Your Assignment

Create a timeline that accurately and creatively

reflects the major events of the English

Reformation. Be sure to include illustrations that

relate to the events being described on your

timeline. This assignment will be due tomorrow

and will count as a 20 pt. classwork grade.


The Catholic Response :The Counter-Reformation

  • How is the Catholic Church going to respond to Protestantism?

  • By clarifying teachings, correcting abuses, & winning people back to Catholicism


Council of Trent

  • Meeting of church leaders in Trent, Italy

  • Called by pope to combat corruption

  • Met over 20 times in next 18 years


Actions of Council

  • Clarified Catholic teachings

    • Rejected predestination

    • Insisted that faith, good works, & sacraments needed for salvation

  • Better educated clergy

  • No more abuses involving money & church officials


Society of Jesus - Jesuits

  • Founded by Ignatius

    of Loyola

  • Preached, educated people

    & fed poor

  • Brought Christianity to

    other parts of the world


Inquisition

  • Condemned people, including churchmen, whose view were considered dangerous

  • Published list of forbidden books

  • Heretics (rejecters of Catholicism) were fined, imprisoned, or put to death


Other Persecution

Witch Hunts

Jewish persecution- Ghettos


http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=-fadCAHjN-s#t=51


Scientific Revolution

How does science impact us today?


The Scientific Revolution


Changing Views of the Universe

  • Ancient scholars like Aristotle taught that Earth was center of universe

    • Made sense

    • Church accepted idea

  • People began to question this view


Nicolaus Copernicus

  • Heliocentric

    model of the universe

  • Earth just one of many planets that revolves around sun

  • Most experts rejected this idea


Copernicus’s Heliocentric Model


Tycho Brahe

  • Provided evidence to support Copernicus’s theory

    • Every night collected data on movement of the stars


Johannes Kepler

  • Brahe’s assistant

  • Used Brahe’s data

    to calculate orbits of

    planets around the sun

  • Oval-shaped orbit

    called ellipse


Galileo’s Discoveries

  • Observed the four moons of Jupiter moving around that planet

  • Condemned because his views challenged Christian teaching


Views of the Moon

Sketchings by Galileo

Pictures of moon by modern telescope


Francis Bacon

  • Believed in experimentation and observation

  • Wanted science to make life better for people


Why is the diagram a circle?


Breakthroughs in Medicine

  • Andreas Vesalius – first accurate & detailed study of human anatomy


  • William Harvey

    described circulation of blood

  • Anton van Leeuwenhoek perfected the microscope (first human to see cells & mircoorganisms)


Transforming Chemistry

  • Robert Boyle distinguished between elements & chemical compounds

  • Explained effect of temp. & pressure on gases

Boyle's air pumpRobert Boyle and his collaborators designed this apparatus at the end of the 1650s. A turned handle pumped air out of the bell jar, leaving a near-vacuum. Experiments on candles and animals gave the first insight into the role of air in sustaining life.


Isaac Newton

  • Developed the theory

    of gravity

  • Nature follows uniform laws – all motion can be measured & described mathematically


Newton’s Laws of Motion

  • Objects in motion stay in motion unless acted upon by an outside force.

  • Force is an object’s mass x its acceleration (F = ma).

  • For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.


Let’s Review

  • In what areas of science were advancements made during the Scientific Revolution?


Essential Question

  • How did discoveries in science lead to a new way of thinking for Europeans?


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