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The Renaissance. Monday 9/23. Share your responses regarding the impact of the crusades and the plague on the Feudal System. Brain Storm- How was the Feudal system effected at the end of the Middle Ages?. How did the Crusades impact the Feudal system?

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Monday 9 23
Monday 9/23

Share your responses regarding the impact of the crusades and the plague on the Feudal System.


Brain Storm- How was the Feudal system effected at the end of the Middle Ages?

  • How did the Crusades impact the Feudal system?

    • Thousands of barons and knights mortgaged or sold their lands in order to raise money for a crusading expedition.

    • Other Lords failed at organizing good heirs to their land.

    • Private warfare, die out. Which puts less concern on protection.

    • The peasant's experience

    • Increased the power of kings

    • Accelerated the rise of cities since the feudal lords needed the cities’ help to finance their trips.

  • How did the Plague impact the Feudal system?

    • Death toll- labor shortages gave leverage to the serfs.

    • The fear of death overrode the fear of the lords.


Do Now: on a sticky note write one idea of how the Renaissance begins or why it does

.. Slap it on the board!!


The renaissance and more
The Renaissance … and more Renaissance begins or why it does

- Italy: Culture, Art, and Writing

  • The people of the era

  • The innovations of the era (printing press; sci revolution

  • Changes in the Church (Reformation)

  • Explorers!


Middle Ages- Renaissance begins or why it does

devotion to Religion and a strict social system

Renaissance-

rebirth of classical learning and a belief in humans as individuals

Plague and Crusades-

Lords out of power

Power to the Merchant class

Decline of Feudalism

Peasants demand freedom

Development of the Renaissance

Merchants from the East= rich Italian cities

The “hunger” the crusades created

Cities!!

Greek and Roman guidance in arts ,thinking and writing

Wealth=status

(not birth)


The renaissance 1300s 1500

The Renaissance begins or why it doesRenaissance- 1300s -1500


A new world view humanism you can do it
A New World view: Renaissance begins or why it doesHUMANISM – “YOU CAN DO IT!”

Out with religion in with human experience!

  • Education should encourage a person’s creative powers

    • Petrarch in Italy

      • Assembled a library of Greek & Roman writings


Activity 1
Activity 1 Renaissance begins or why it does

1. Brain storm 2 words that comes to mind when you think of Italy.

2. Read the Short Passage-

Come up with 2 points why Italy would be a great home for the Renaissance.


Why italy
Why Italy? Renaissance begins or why it does

1. Italians became aware of glorious past

  • Art & architecture surrounded them

  • Catholic Church supported many artists & scholars


2 geography plays a role
2. Geography Plays a Role Renaissance begins or why it does

  • location on Mediterranean = trade with Muslim world

  • Trade = wealth that fueled Renaissance

  • Scientific & technical knowledge was exchanged


3 the italian city states where it all began
3. The Italian City-States: Renaissance begins or why it doesWhere it all began

  • No strong central ruler in Italy

  • Independent city-states develop

    • Run by powerful & wealthy families like the Medicis in Florence

    • These families supported the arts


Summary
Summary Renaissance begins or why it does

Create a poster advocating for one change you’d like to see during the Renaissance.


Homework
Homework Renaissance begins or why it does

Complete the Diagram.

- Compare the Middle Ages to the Renaissance


Tues 9 24
Tues 9/24 Renaissance begins or why it does

Why Italy the Arts and Culture explosion!


Do now why italy
Do Now: Why Italy? Renaissance begins or why it does

1. Brain storm 2 words that comes to mind when you think of Italy

2. Read the Short Passage-

Come up with 2 points why Italy would be a great home for the Renaissance.


Why italy1
Why Italy? Renaissance begins or why it does

1. Italians became aware of glorious past

  • Art & architecture surrounded them

  • Catholic Church supported many artists & scholars


2 geography plays a role1
2. Geography Plays a Role Renaissance begins or why it does

  • Italy’s location on Mediterranean Sea encouraged trade with Muslim world

  • Trade provided wealth that fueled Renaissance

  • Scientific & technical knowledge was exchanged


3 the italian city states where it all began1
3. The Italian City-States: Renaissance begins or why it doesWhere it all began

  • No strong central ruler in Italy

  • Independent city-states develop

    • Run by powerful & wealthy families like the Medicis in Florence

    • These families supported the arts


Florence italy
Florence, Italy Renaissance begins or why it does


Renaissance art
Renaissance Art Renaissance begins or why it does

  • Portraits were created of famous figures of the day, reflecting humanism

  • Renaissance artists studied the Greeks & Romans – brought back life-size statues

Donatello Sculpture ofGattamelata - 1447


Return to realism
Return to Realism Renaissance begins or why it does

  • New techniques develop to make realistic humans & landscapes

    • Perspective – make distant objects smaller than those close to the viewer

    • Shading

    • Oil paints to reflect light

    • Study anatomy to make sculptures look more accurate


Great artists of the renaissance
Great Artists of the Renaissance Renaissance begins or why it does

  • Ninja Turtles

    • Leonardo

    • Michelangelo

    • Raphael

    • Donatello

    • Filippo Brunelleschi


Leonardo da vinci
Leonardo Renaissance begins or why it doesda Vinci

  • A true Renaissance man

    • Talented in painting, anatomy, music, architecture, & engineering


The last supper
The Last Supper Renaissance begins or why it does


Mona lisa
Mona Lisa Renaissance begins or why it does


Sketches of leonardo
Sketches of Leonardo Renaissance begins or why it does


What are these
What are these? Renaissance begins or why it does


Donatello
Donatello Renaissance begins or why it does

  • Sculptor

  • In bronze

  • David

    • Greek Influence


Artists reading
Artists Reading Renaissance begins or why it does

Read the articles about the two artists.

For each (on your notes guide) write a few words about the artist and then the pieces he created.


Michelangelo
Michelangelo Renaissance begins or why it does

  • Another Renaissance man

    • Painter, sculptor, architect, & poet


Michelangelo s pieta
Michelangelo's Renaissance begins or why it doesPieta

  • Mary holds her dead son Jesus

  • Realism

    • ‘dead weight’

    • Body position

    • Restrained grief


Sistine chapel
Sistine chapel Renaissance begins or why it does

  • Commissioned by Pope

  • Took 4 years to complete

  • Tells Biblical stories


Raphael
Raphael Renaissance begins or why it does

  • Known for his tender portrayals of Madonna, mother of Jesus


S ummary visual analysis raphael s the school of athens
S Renaissance begins or why it doesummary Visual Analysis Raphael’s The School of Athens


Do now

Do Now Renaissance begins or why it does

Read the handout on Renaissance, Classical, & Medieval Art. Make a chart that includes some of the features of each time period.


Where art thou
Where ART Thou? Renaissance begins or why it does

  • In this game, student teams will compete against each other to see who can correctly identify the appropriate time period for the pieces of artwork that you will see today. You will use the charts you just created to help you identify the art as being either Classical, Medieval, or Renaissance. The team with the most answers correct will earn bonus points for your next quiz/test.


Machiavelli
Machiavelli Renaissance begins or why it does

What makes a good leader?


Writing for a new society
Writing for a New Society Renaissance begins or why it does

  • Literature reflected curiosity of the times

  • Can we make men better?

    • SURE we can…

    • Birth of the ‘self help book’

      • Guide books for Renaissance men and women


Niccolo machiavelli
Niccolo Renaissance begins or why it does Machiavelli

  • Wrote The Prince

  • Guidebook for rulers on how to gain and keep power

  • He stressed that rulers should use whatever means necessary to achieve their goals


The prince
The Prince Renaissance begins or why it does

  • Very controversial book

  • Some praised his book for taking a realistic approach to politics

  • Others criticized him and called it a “how to” book for tyrants


Machiavelli s successful prince
Machiavelli’s Successful Prince Renaissance begins or why it does

  • Niccolo Machiavelli wrote a guide for rulers on how to gain and maintain power. Unlike ancient writers such as Plato, Machiavelli did not discuss leadership in terms of high ideals. Instead, his book The Prince looked at real rulers in an age of ruthless power politics. Machiavelli stressed that the end justifies the means. He urged rulers to use whatever methods necessary to achieve their goals. Machiavelli saw himself as an enemy of oppression and corruption, but critics attacked his cynical advice. Later students of government, however, argued that Machiavelli provided a realistic look at politics. His work continues to spark debate because it raises important ethical questions about the nature of government and the use of power.


Summary1
Summary Renaissance begins or why it does

Does your theory of a good leader match what Machiavelli imagined during the Renaissance. Discuss the comparisons (both similarities and differences)


Fri 9 27
Fri 9/27 Renaissance begins or why it does


WEBquest Renaissance begins or why it does


Monday 9 30
Monday 9/30 Renaissance begins or why it does

Self help books


Do now a how to book for today
Do Now: Renaissance begins or why it doesA “How To” Book for Today

  • Pretend you are a writer setting out to create a “how to” guidebook. Your goal is to help people be successful in today’s world.

  • List at least five things that you would write about in your book that could help someone achieve success.


Baldassare castiglione the book of the courtier 1528
Baldassare Renaissance begins or why it does CastiglioneThe Book of the Courtier(1528)

  • Perhaps most important work on Renaissanceeducation

  • Specified qualities necessary to be a true gentleman

    • included physical and intellectual abilities and leading an active life

  • Rejected crude contemporary social habits (e.g. spitting on the floor, eating without utensils, wiping one’s nose with one’s sleeve, etc.)


Continued
Continued… Renaissance begins or why it does

  • Described the ideal of a “Renaissance man”

    • who was well-versed in the Greek and Roman classics

    • an accomplished warrior

    • could play music, dance

    • had a modest but confident personal demeanor

Swagger.


Famous castiglione quotes
Famous Castiglione Quotes Renaissance begins or why it does

“Employ in everything a certain casualness which conceals art and creates the impression that what is done and said is accomplished without effort and without its being thought about. It is from this, in my opinion, that grace largely derives.”

“Outward beauty is a true sign of inner goodness. “


How to
How To Renaissance begins or why it does

Get right into your groups.

Complete your book and turn it in!


Northern renaissance
Northern Renaissance Renaissance begins or why it does


Do now1

Do Now Renaissance begins or why it does

Think of a major invention from the past 100 years. How has this invention dramatically changed the way we live our lives?


Renaissance in the north
Renaissance in the North Renaissance begins or why it does


The printing revolution
The Printing Revolution Renaissance begins or why it does

  • Around 1455, Johann Gutenberg invents the printing press with a movable type

  • Printed the first complete edition of the Bible


How does this change europe
How does this change Europe? Renaissance begins or why it does

  • Before printing press, only a few thousand books in all of Europe

    • By 1500, 15-20 million books copied by press

  • Books now cheaper & easier to produce

  • More people learned how to read

    • Printed books gave new ideas


Northern renaissance artists
Northern Renaissance Artists Renaissance begins or why it does

  • Northern Renaissance began in Flanders

    • From here it spread to Spain, France, Germany, & England


Jan van eyck
Jan van Eyck Renaissance begins or why it does

  • A Northern European Artist

  • The Arnolfini Wedding

  • First to use oil paint

  • Very detailed

  • Lots of symbolism


Albrecht durer
Albrecht Durer Renaissance begins or why it does

  • Mix of Italian and Northern style

  • Expert in proportion

  • Often placed himself in paintings

  • Mastered engraving

    • Etching a design on a metal plate using acid


More.. Renaissance begins or why it does


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0i3d63k- Renaissance begins or why it doesZLg


Do now2
Do Now: Renaissance begins or why it does

How did Italian and Northern art compare?


Northern humanists writers
Northern Humanists & Writers Renaissance begins or why it does

  • Humanist scholars stressed education & classical learning.

    • Wanted to encourage religious reform

  • Writers began using the vernacular.

    • Everyday language of the people


Desiderius erasmus
Desiderius Renaissance begins or why it does Erasmus

  • Dutch priest & humanist

  • Believed that the Bible should be translated into the vernacular

  • Disturbed by corruption in the Church

    • Calls for reforms

    • In Praise of Folly


The ultimate renaissance writer william shakespeare
The Ultimate Renaissance Writer Renaissance begins or why it doesWilliam Shakespeare

  • Most famous play-write

  • Wrote 37 plays that are still performed around the world.

  • Universal themes in everyday settings

  • Explored the complexity of the individual in his works


Shakespearean language
Shakespearean Language Renaissance begins or why it does

  • Characters spoke in a language that common people could understand & appreciate

  • Invented over 1,700 new words for the English language

    • Deck (a pack of cards)

    • Stout (strong, healthy)

    • Journal (daily)


Globe theatre
Globe Theatre Renaissance begins or why it does


Interior & Exterior Views of the Globe Theatre in London Renaissance begins or why it does

1599


Sir thomas more
Sir Thomas More Renaissance begins or why it does

  • Pressed for social reform

  • Wrote Utopia– describes a perfect society where men & women live in peace and harmony

  • Everyone is educated & crime does not exist


What is a utopia and what is you version
What is a Utopia and What is you version? Renaissance begins or why it does


Let s review
Let’s Review Renaissance begins or why it does

  • How did the Northern Renaissance differ from the Italian Renaissance?


The reformation
The Reformation Renaissance begins or why it does

Quiz Review


Indulgences
Indulgences Renaissance begins or why it does

  • A spiritual favor from God

    • Release from sin

  • Later became buying your way

    out of hell and purgatory

    • Very popular idea

      • “Get Out of Jail Free” Card

      • Can use before or after sinning


Heaven the place to be

Hell…it’s eternity Renaissance begins or why it does

Heaven…the place to be

Purgatory… your soul is in limbo


Indulgences come in many forms
Indulgences come in many forms… Renaissance begins or why it does

  • Can be a…

    • Prayer

    • An act of kindness

    • Touching a relic

    • Later….can be purchased

      • A way for the church to make money!


Do now take out your reflection chart
Do Now: Take out your Reflection Chart Renaissance begins or why it does


The protestant reformation

The Protestant Reformation Renaissance begins or why it does

Vs.

Martin Luther – German monk

Pope Leo X


Reformation begins
Reformation Begins Renaissance begins or why it does

  • Key word is REFORM

  • People want to reform the Church

    • BRAINSTORM WHY???

  • New ways of thinking about religion emerge


Why reform
Why Reform? Renaissance begins or why it does

  • Clergy were breaking vows

  • Popes are corrupt

    • Fought for political power & land

  • Church took money from people

    • INDULGENCES

  • CHURCH IS MESSING WITH….

    SALVATION!


Slogan for tetzel as soon as the coin in the coffer rings the soul from purgatory springs
Slogan for Tetzel – “As soon as the coin in the coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs.”


Martin luther
Martin Luther rings, the soul from purgatory springs.”

  • Became a monk & professor in Germany

    • Saw corruption in the Church

    • Last straw was INDULGENCES

    • Outraged by Tetzel


95 theses
95 Theses rings, the soul from purgatory springs.”

  • 95 complaints against indulgences

  • Nailed to church door at Wittenberg


Reading activity
Reading Activity rings, the soul from purgatory springs.”

  • What complaints does Luther have?

  • Does Luther have any suggestions for how religion should be carried out? Explain?

    Do Now: Share with a partner


Luther in a nutshell
Luther in a nutshell… rings, the soul from purgatory springs.”

  • Faith alone = salvation

  • Bible is ONLY religious source

  • Let clergy marry

  • Banned indulgences, confession, & pilgrimages

    • Luther excommunicated on 1521 by Pope Leo X


Charles v calls him to the diet of worms meeting for german princes
Charles V calls him to the rings, the soul from purgatory springs.”Diet of Worms (Meeting for German Princes)

OUTLAW


Luther s ideas spread
Luther’s Ideas Spread rings, the soul from purgatory springs.”


New holy wars
New Holy Wars rings, the soul from purgatory springs.”

  • Series of wars fought between German Lutheran princes & the RCC

    • Fought over land

  • Peace of Augsburg

    • the religion of the ruler should be the religion of the region


Let s review1
Let’s Review rings, the soul from purgatory springs.”

  • List three of Luther’s ideas that were different than those of the Catholic Church.


Switzerland s reformation

Switzerland’s Reformation rings, the soul from purgatory springs.”


John calvin
John Calvin rings, the soul from purgatory springs.”

  • Priest & lawyer

  • Published book that explained

    how to set up & run a Protestant

    Church

  • Believed in PREDESTINATION


Predestination
Predestination rings, the soul from purgatory springs.”

  • Idea that God had long ago decided who would gain salvation

  • World divided into two kinds of people

    • Saints & Sinners


Calvin the community
Calvin & the Community rings, the soul from purgatory springs.”

  • Calvin sets up theocracy in Geneva

    • city-government run by church leaders

  • “Chosen people”

  • Stressed hard work, discipline, & honesty

  • Harsh punishments for

    fighting, swearing,

    drunkenness, & gambling


Areas shaded purple show where Calvinism spread rings, the soul from purgatory springs.”


HW- Use p 64 Complete the Reading and fill out the Chart rings, the soul from purgatory springs.”


Do now 10 12 10
Do Now – 10/12/10 rings, the soul from purgatory springs.”

  • What is predestination? What new reformer came up with this idea?


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= rings, the soul from purgatory springs.”dt5AJr0wls0

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L4piapxaT0k


England s reformation henry viii
England’s rings, the soul from purgatory springs.”Reformation- Henry VIII

Rooted in politics, not religion

Originally a Catholic

Strong supporter of RCC – condemns Martin Luther & other reformers


One little problem no male heirs
One little problem…..no male heirs… rings, the soul from purgatory springs.”

  • Married to Catherine of Aragon

    • Only had one daughter (Mary)

    • In 1527, asks Pope to annul his marriage

      • Pope says “no”

Henry’s daughter Mary


Henry breaks with the church
Henry Breaks With the Church rings, the soul from purgatory springs.”

  • He takes control of English Church from the pope.

  • In 1533, Henry annuls his marriage and marries Anne Boleyn.

  • Anne has daughter, Elizabeth

Natalie Portman as Anne Boleyn


Act of supremacy
Act of Supremacy rings, the soul from purgatory springs.”

  • In 1534, Parliament passes the Act of Supremacy

  • Henry is supreme head of Church of England

    • Henry sells off church lands

    • Kills opposition


After henry s death
After Henry’s Death rings, the soul from purgatory springs.”

  • Henry dies in 1547

  • Only one surviving son, 9 yr. old Edward VI

    • Makes Church of England more Protestant

    • Book of Common Prayer created  outlines church service


Here comes bloody mary
Here Comes “Bloody Mary” rings, the soul from purgatory springs.”

  • Edward VI dies as a teenager

  • Mary Tudor becomes the new queen

    • Wants to return England to Catholicism

    • Killed hundreds of Protestants by burning them at the stake


Queen elizabeth the sensible ruler
Queen Elizabeth – The Sensible Ruler rings, the soul from purgatory springs.”

  • Mary dies in 1558, so Elizabeth becomes queen

  • Sought a compromise between Protestants & Catholics

    • Becomes known as Elizabethan Settlement


Review
Review rings, the soul from purgatory springs.”

  • Why did Henry VIII decide to break away from the Catholic Church?


Your assignment
Your Assignment rings, the soul from purgatory springs.”

Create a timeline that accurately and creatively

reflects the major events of the English

Reformation. Be sure to include illustrations that

relate to the events being described on your

timeline. This assignment will be due tomorrow

and will count as a 20 pt. classwork grade.


The catholic response the counter reformation
The Catholic Response : rings, the soul from purgatory springs.”The Counter-Reformation

  • How is the Catholic Church going to respond to Protestantism?

  • By clarifying teachings, correcting abuses, & winning people back to Catholicism


Council of trent
Council of Trent rings, the soul from purgatory springs.”

  • Meeting of church leaders in Trent, Italy

  • Called by pope to combat corruption

  • Met over 20 times in next 18 years


Actions of council
Actions of Council rings, the soul from purgatory springs.”

  • Clarified Catholic teachings

    • Rejected predestination

    • Insisted that faith, good works, & sacraments needed for salvation

  • Better educated clergy

  • No more abuses involving money & church officials


Society of jesus jesuits
Society of Jesus - Jesuits rings, the soul from purgatory springs.”

  • Founded by Ignatius

    of Loyola

  • Preached, educated people

    & fed poor

  • Brought Christianity to

    other parts of the world


Inquisition
Inquisition rings, the soul from purgatory springs.”

  • Condemned people, including churchmen, whose view were considered dangerous

  • Published list of forbidden books

  • Heretics (rejecters of Catholicism) were fined, imprisoned, or put to death


Other persecutio n
Other Persecutio rings, the soul from purgatory springs.”n

Witch Hunts

Jewish persecution- Ghettos


http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=-fadCAHjN-s#t=http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=-fadCAHjN-s#t=51


Scientific Revolutionhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=-fadCAHjN-s#t=

How does science impact us today?


The scientific revolution

The Scientific Revolutionhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=-fadCAHjN-s#t=


Changing views of the universe
Changing Views of the Universehttp://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=-fadCAHjN-s#t=

  • Ancient scholars like Aristotle taught that Earth was center of universe

    • Made sense

    • Church accepted idea

  • People began to question this view


Nicolaus copernicus
Nicolaushttp://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=-fadCAHjN-s#t= Copernicus

  • Heliocentric

    model of the universe

  • Earth just one of many planets that revolves around sun

  • Most experts rejected this idea


Copernicus s heliocentric model
Copernicus’s Heliocentric Modelhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=-fadCAHjN-s#t=


Tycho brahe
Tychohttp://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=-fadCAHjN-s#t= Brahe

  • Provided evidence to support Copernicus’s theory

    • Every night collected data on movement of the stars


Johannes kepler
Johannes http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=-fadCAHjN-s#t=Kepler

  • Brahe’s assistant

  • Used Brahe’s data

    to calculate orbits of

    planets around the sun

  • Oval-shaped orbit

    called ellipse


Galileo s discoveries
Galileo’s Discoverieshttp://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=-fadCAHjN-s#t=

  • Observed the four moons of Jupiter moving around that planet

  • Condemned because his views challenged Christian teaching


Views of the moon
Views of the Moonhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=-fadCAHjN-s#t=

Sketchings by Galileo

Pictures of moon by modern telescope


Francis bacon
Francis Baconhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=-fadCAHjN-s#t=

  • Believed in experimentation and observation

  • Wanted science to make life better for people


Why is the diagram a circle? http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=-fadCAHjN-s#t=


Breakthroughs in medicine
Breakthroughs in Medicinehttp://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=-fadCAHjN-s#t=

  • Andreas Vesalius – first accurate & detailed study of human anatomy


  • William Harvey http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=-fadCAHjN-s#t=

    described circulation of blood

  • Anton van Leeuwenhoek perfected the microscope (first human to see cells & mircoorganisms)


Transforming chemistry
Transforming Chemistryhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=-fadCAHjN-s#t=

  • Robert Boyle distinguished between elements & chemical compounds

  • Explained effect of temp. & pressure on gases

Boyle's air pumpRobert Boyle and his collaborators designed this apparatus at the end of the 1650s. A turned handle pumped air out of the bell jar, leaving a near-vacuum. Experiments on candles and animals gave the first insight into the role of air in sustaining life.


Isaac newton
Isaac Newtonhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=-fadCAHjN-s#t=

  • Developed the theory

    of gravity

  • Nature follows uniform laws – all motion can be measured & described mathematically


Newton s laws of motion
Newton’s Laws of Motionhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=-fadCAHjN-s#t=

  • Objects in motion stay in motion unless acted upon by an outside force.

  • Force is an object’s mass x its acceleration (F = ma).

  • For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.


Let s review2
Let’s Review http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=-fadCAHjN-s#t=

  • In what areas of science were advancements made during the Scientific Revolution?


Essential question
Essential Questionhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=-fadCAHjN-s#t=

  • How did discoveries in science lead to a new way of thinking for Europeans?


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