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Chapter 11 Positioning and Differentiating the Market Offering Through the Product Life Cycle by. PowerPoint by Milton M. Pressley University of New Orleans. Kotler on Marketing. Watch the product life cycle; but more important, watch the market life cycle. Chapter Objectives.

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Chapter 11 positioning and differentiating the market offering through the product life cycle by

Chapter 11 Positioning and Differentiating the Market Offering Through the Product Life Cycleby

PowerPoint by

Milton M. Pressley

University of New Orleans


Kotler on marketing

Kotler on Marketing

Watch the product life cycle; but more important, watch the market life cycle.


Chapter objectives

Chapter Objectives

  • In this chapter, we focus on the following questions:

    • How can the firm choose and communicate an effective positioning in the market?

    • What are the major differentiating attributes available to firms?

    • What marketing strategies are appropriate at each stage of the product life cycle?

    • What marketing strategies are appropriate at each stage of the market’s evolution?


Table 11 1 examples of value propositions demand states and marketing tasks

Table 11.1: Examples of Value PropositionsDemand States and Marketing Tasks


Developing and communicating a positioning strategy

Developing and Communicating a Positioning Strategy

  • Positioning According to Ries and Trout

    • Strengthen own current position

    • Grab an unoccupied position

    • De-position

    • Re-position

    • Product ladders

  • Positioning According to Treacy and Wiersema

    • Value disciplines

      • Product leader

      • Operationally excellent firm

      • Customer intimate firm


Developing and communicating a positioning strategy1

Developing and Communicating a Positioning Strategy

  • Positioning: How many ideas to promote?

    • Unique selling proposition

  • Four major positioning errors

    • Underpositioning

    • Overpositioning

    • Confused positioning

    • Doubtful positioning


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Discussion Question

Can you think of any companies that market the same product or service offering to multiple segments using different strategies? Are the different segments being offered different value propositions? – baking soda


Figure 11 1 perceptual map

Figure 11.1: Perceptual Map


Developing and communicating a positioning strategy2

Developing and Communicating a Positioning Strategy

  • Theme park’s positioning possibilities:

    • Attribute positioning

    • Benefit positioning

    • Use or application positioning

    • User positioning

    • Competitor positioning

    • Product category positioning

    • Quality or price positioning

  • Which Positioning to Promote?


  • Table 11 2 method for competitive advantage selection attitude change

    Table 11.2: Method for Competitive-Advantage Selection – Attitude Change?

    See text for complete table


    Adding further differentiation

    Adding Further Differentiation

    • Differentiation

      • Differentiation criteria:

        • Important

        • Distinctive

        • Superior

        • Preemptive

        • Affordable

        • Profitable


    Adding further differentiation1

    Adding Further Differentiation

    • Exceed customer expectations with a three-step process

      • Defining the customer value model

      • Building the customer value hierarchy

        • Basic

        • Expected

        • Desired

        • Unanticipated

      • Deciding on the customer value package

        -- remember the reversed engineering?


    Figure 11 2 the bcg competitive advantage matrix

    Differentiation Tools

    Figure 11.2: The BCG Competitive Advantage Matrix


    Table 11 3 differentiation variables

    Table 11.3: Differentiation Variables

    See text for complete table


    Differentiation tools

    Differentiation Tools

    • Product Differentiation

      • Form

      • Features


    Table 11 4 measuring customer effectiveness value

    Table 11.4: Measuring Customer Effectiveness Value


    Differentiation tools1

    Differentiation Tools

    • Performance Quality

    • Conformance Quality

    • Durability

    • Reliability

    • Reparability

    • Style

    • Design: The Integrating Force

  • Services Differentiation

    • Ordering Ease


  • Differentiation tools2

    Differentiation Tools

    • Delivery

      • Quick response system

    • Installation

    • Customer Training

    • Customer Consulting

    • Maintenance and Repair

    HP’s online support page


    Powerpoint by milton m pressley university of new orleans

    Discussion Question

    Many e-commerce ventures fail because of distribution problems in the so-called “last mile” (the local distribution portion of shipping of online purchases). Can a marketing plan help offset some of these potential pitfalls? -- eguo


    Differentiation tools3

    Differentiation Tools

    • Miscellaneous Services

  • Personnel Differentiation

    • Competence

    • Courtesy

    • Creditability

    • Reliability

    • Responsiveness

    • Communication


  • Differentiation tools4

    Differentiation Tools

    • Channel Differentiation

    • Image Differentiation

      • Identity

      • Image

    • Symbols, Colors, Slogans, Special Attributes

    • Physical plant

    • Events and Sponsorship

    • Using Multiple Image-Building Techniques


    Product life cycle marketing strategies

    Product Life-Cycle Marketing Strategies

    • To say that a product has a life cycle asserts four things

      • Products have a limited life.

      • Product sales pass through distance stages, each posing different challenges, opportunities, and problems to the seller.

      • Profits rise and fall at different stages of the product life cycle.

      • Products require different marketing, financial, manufacturing, purchasing, and human resource strategies in each life-cycle stage.


    Figure 11 3 sales and profit life cycles

    Figure 11.3: Sales and Profit Life Cycles


    Figure 11 4 cost product life cycle patterns

    Product Life-Cycle Marketing Strategies

    Figure 11.4: Cost Product Life-Cycle Patterns


    Figure 11 5 style fashion and fad life cycles

    Figure 11.5: Style, Fashion, and Fad Life Cycles

    Product Life-Cycle Marketing Strategies


    Figure 11 6 long range product market expansion strategy p product m market

    Product Life-Cycle Marketing Strategies

    Figure 11.6: Long-Range Product Market Expansion Strategy (P = Product; M = Market)

    • Marketing Strategies: Introduction Stage

      • The Pioneer Advantage

        • Inventor

        • Product pioneer

        • Market pioneer


    Figure 11 7 stages of the competitive cycle

    Product Life-Cycle Marketing Strategies

    Figure 11.7: Stages of the Competitive Cycle

    • The Competitive Cycle


    Powerpoint by milton m pressley university of new orleans

    Product Life-Cycle Marketing Strategies

    • Marketing Strategies: Growth Stage

      • Improve product quality and add new product features and improved styling

      • Add new models and flanker products

      • Enter new market segments

      • Increase distribution coverage and enter new distribution channels

      • Shift from product-awareness advertising to product-preference advertising

      • Lower prices to attract next layer of price-sensitive buyers


    Powerpoint by milton m pressley university of new orleans

    Product Life-Cycle Marketing Strategies

    • Marketing Strategies: Maturity Stage

      • Market Modification

        • Expand number of brand users by:

          • Converting nonusers

          • Entering new market segments

          • Winning competitors’ customers

        • Convince current users to increase usage by:

          • Using the product on more occasions

          • Using more of the product on each occasion

          • Using the product in new ways


    Powerpoint by milton m pressley university of new orleans

    Product Life-Cycle Marketing Strategies

    • Product modification

      • Quality improvement

      • Feature improvement

    • Marketing-Mix Modification

      • Prices

      • Distribution

      • Advertising

      • Sales promotion

      • Personal selling

      • Services


    Powerpoint by milton m pressley university of new orleans

    Product Life-Cycle Marketing Strategies

    • Marketing Strategies: Decline Stage

      • Increase firm’s investment (to dominate the market and strengthen its competitive position)

      • Maintain the firm’s investment level until the uncertainties about the industry are resolved.

      • Decrease the firm’s investment level selectively by dropping unprofitable customer groups, while simultaneously strengthening the firm’s investment in lucrative niches

      • Harvesting (“milking”) the firm’s investment to recover cash quickly

      • Divesting the business quickly by disposing of its assets as advantageously as possible.


    Table 11 5 summary of product life cycle characteristics objectives and strategies

    Table 11.5: Summary of Product Life-Cycle Characteristics, Objectives, and Strategies

    See text for complete table


    Market evolution

    Market Evolution

    • Diffused-preference market options

      • A single-niche strategy

      • A multiple-niche strategy

      • A mass-market strategy

  • Growth

    • Market-growth stage options

      • Single-niche strategy

      • Mass-market strategy

      • Multiple-niche strategy

  • Maturity

  • Figure 11.8: Market Fragmentation and Market Consolidation Strategies


    Market evolution1

    Market Evolution

    • Decline

    • An Example: The Paper-Towel Market

  • Dynamics of Attribute Competition

    • Customer expectations are progressive

    • Approaches to discover new attributes:

      • Customer-survey processes

      • Intuitive processes

      • Dialectical processes

      • Needs-hierarchy process


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