Filesystem hierarchy
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Filesystem Hierarchy. Dr. Michael L. Collard www.sdml.info/collard www.sdml.info/collard/linux [email protected] Many Types of Files. Application programs System programs Libraries System configuration files Include files User data files Program configuration files

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Filesystem Hierarchy

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Filesystem hierarchy

Filesystem Hierarchy

Dr. Michael L. Collard

www.sdml.info/collard

www.sdml.info/collard/linux

[email protected]


Many types of files

Many Types of Files

  • Application programs

  • System programs

  • Libraries

  • System configuration files

  • Include files

  • User data files

  • Program configuration files

  • Devices (i.e., /dev)

  • Runtime information (i.e., /proc)

  • Distribution-installed files and locally-installed files


Filesystem hierarchy1

Filesystem Hierarchy

  • Standard directories (and filenames), and where they are located

  • Historical precedents from Unix systems

  • Each distribution could choose differently

  • Consistency among various Unixes: important

  • Consistency among various Linux distributions: more important


Filesystem hierarchy standard

Filesystem Hierarchy Standard

  • Defines main directories and contents of them for Linux

  • Based on common practice in Unix

  • Latest version 2.3 (Jan 29, 2004)

  • Created by Free Standards Group

    • members include: HP, Red Hat, IBM, and Dell

    • Merged with OSDL in 2007: Linux Foundation

    • Where Linus works


Filesystem hierarchy

FHS

  • Although a standard, not all Linux distributions follow it completely (even some members)

  • Because now part of a Linux initiative, some Unix-like systems have major differences

    • E.g., Mac OS X, directories /Home, /Library, and /Applications

  • However, still a good starting point towards understanding


Fhs rationale

FHS Rationale

  • Issues for installed files and directories

    • Software to predict

    • Users to predict

  • General guidelines

    • shareable vs. unsharable, i.e., one more than one host or on one host

    • static vs. variable, i.e., do the contents change

  • Reasons for this organization?


Important directories

Important Directories

  • /

  • /boot

  • /home

  • /root

  • /bin

  • /lib

  • /etc

  • /tmp

  • /dev

  • /usr, /usr/bin, /usr/include, /usr/local, /usr/share

  • /var, /var/log

  • /opt


Changes to historical practice

Changes to Historical Practice

  • Historically, /usr and /etc had both static and variable files

  • /var was created to store variable files

  • Moved most of the variable files in /usr to /var

  • Still working on moving variable files in /etc to /var


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