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Chapter 1 Introduction to Software Engineering. Why Engineer Software?. Air traffic control case study $2.3 Billion spent without any usable deliverable Enormous social cost of NOT engineering software Too many large-scale software development failures for too many decades

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why engineer software
Why Engineer Software?
  • Air traffic control case study
    • $2.3 Billion spent without any usable deliverable
  • Enormous social cost of NOT engineering software
  • Too many large-scale software development failures for too many decades
  • Software development initiatives fail for many different reasons, most of which are addressed by good software engineering practices
sources of complexity in software development
Sources of Complexity in Software Development
  • Technical staff lacks expertise in the complex application domain
  • Difficulty in interpersonal communications
  • Ambiguity of natural language, used to express user needs
  • Difficulty of mentally grasping and coordinating the details of a large-scale development project
how software development projects fail
How Software Development Projects Fail
  • No functioning software results
  • The resulting software does not adequately address the need of the users
  • Software contains incorrect computations
  • The software is too difficult to use correctly
  • The system response time is too slow to be used without frustration
why inter personal communication is difficult
Why Inter-personal Communication is Difficult
  • Technical staff and end users have different background knowledge
  • Technical staff often do not possess the vocabulary used in the application domain
  • End users frequently do not understand how to effectively express their needs in terms that are clear to systems developers.
  • Ambiguity of natural language
maintaining software systems
Maintaining Software Systems
  • Maintenance is an inevitable aspect of software development
  • It allows software to evolve with an organization
  • Too often too many resources are directed to maintenance and away from new development
  • Software requires excessive maintenance efforts if it is poorly structured
  • It is better to invest in well-structured software up front than to invest excessively in maintenance later
elements of a software development paradigm
Elements of a Software Development Paradigm
  • Conceptualization
    • What elements are instrumental in how the developers think about the software system?
  • Representation
    • Must convey what the software project is all about
    • Most effectively done with a software modeling notation
  • Implementation
    • Addresses how the source code is structured
a brief history of software engineering techniques
A Brief History of Software Engineering Techniques
  • Structured Programming
    • No gotos
  • Functional Decomposition
    • Top-down organization of subprograms
  • Structured Analysis
    • Recognition that analyzing the problem statement has critical influence on the success of the overall project
    • Formal modeling of subprogram interaction with dataflow diagrams
more history of se techniques
More History of SE Techniques
  • Data-centered analysis
    • Uses techniques developed in structured analysis
    • Data modeling occurs using entity relationship diagrams before functional modeling
  • Object-oriented analysis
    • No longer segregates the modeling of functions and data
    • Objects aggregate data with functions that operate on the data
sample dataflow diagram
Sample Dataflow Diagram

Patron ID

Check for overdue books

Check-outbooks

True/false

Patron record

or null

Book ID, out

Patron ID

Book ID

Read Patronrecord

Change bookstatus

Read book record

Book record

Book record

Write book record

sample entity relationship diagram
Sample Entity Relationship Diagram

LibraryPatron

Address

Has-a

Checks out

Requests

Has-a

1:M

1:M

Book

Has-a

Publisher

principles of the object oriented paradigm
Principles of the Object-Oriented Paradigm
  • Abstraction
  • Modularity
  • Modeling
  • Inheritance
  • Encapsulation(covered in chapter2)
  • Polymorphism(covered in Chapter2)

Shared by other paradigms

abstraction
Abstraction
  • Expressing the software requirements in abstract terms, suppressing details so that a comprehensive portrayal can be made
  • The abstract representation must then be connected to more detailed expressions, so that no information is lost in modeling the system
  • This allows us to reason about the breadth of functionality of the developing system
modularity
Modularity
  • Breaking a complex software system into smaller modules allows one to reduce its overall complexity
  • Modules should aggregate some coherent aspect of the system
  • Modules should present a simple interface
  • Classes, functions, and abstract data types are examples of modules.
abstract data type example
Abstract Data Type Example

Interface

STACK

POP()

PUSH(item)

ISEMPTY()

Accesses

13

98

12 24 98 33 13

24

Implementation Option: Array

Implementation Option: Linked list

modeling
Modeling
  • Modeling is the process of use a graphic notation to express properties of the software system
  • Models express how the system is built out of modules and how these modules interact
  • One objective of modeling is to express characteristics of the software system in an unambiguous manner
inheritance
Inheritance
  • A property distinguishing classes from abstract data types
  • Allows characteristics from one class to be passed on its subclasses
  • Subclasses may override inherited characteristics
cost of not engineering software
Cost of not Engineering Software
  • Need to restructure code
  • High maintenance costs
  • Software is unacceptable to end users
  • Unreliable code
  • Need to rewrite code
  • Difficulty integrating system modules
  • Difficult project management
  • Budget and time overruns
why software engineering is not universal
Why Software Engineering is not Universal
  • Understanding software development as programming only without recognition of importance of analysis and design
  • Short-sighted technical management
  • Pressure of deadlines
  • Poor project estimation, thus unreasonable deadlines
working in teams
Working in Teams
  • Be conscientious about due dates
  • If you are less motivated by the class project, negotiate an equitable grade and take a lesser role
  • Meet regularly with your team
  • Always create an agenda for every team meeting
  • Rotate responsibility for chairing team meetings
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