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Presentation on Nepal Gender and Social Exclusion Assessment (GSEA) Getting Social Exclusion on the Policy Radar Screen Macro Social Analysis Conference May 16-19. Today’s Presentation on the Gender and Social Exclusion Assessment:.

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Presentation on

Nepal Gender and Social Exclusion Assessment (GSEA)

Getting Social Exclusion on the Policy Radar Screen

Macro Social Analysis Conference

May 16-19


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Today’s Presentation on the Gender and Social Exclusion Assessment:

  • Less on the “what” of the GSEA – which is summarized in handout.

  • More on the “how” – 9 elements of the GSEA policy process.

  • But first a few quick slides on the context.


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Corporate Context of GSEA Process Assessment::

  • Collaborative effort between DFID and World Bank – corporate support for collaboration.

  • CAP and CAS developed in tandem – inclusion agenda embedded in both.

  • Strong commitment from WB Country Director who had already forged small but strong group of champions in government for home grown economic reform.


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Politicial Context of GSEA Process Assessment::

  • Small Country – donor dependent.

  • Fledgling democracy – heavy overhang of feudal institutions.

  • Maoist insurgency – recruiting the excluded.

  • Political uncertainty as king uses insurgency as an excuse to take more and more power and sideline democracy.


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Current Political Context: April 2006 People’s Movement Assessment:

  • More sophisticated understanding of “democracy”

  • Democracy now qualified as:

    • “TOTAL DEMOCRACY”

    • “INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY”


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Elements of the GSEA Policy Process Assessment:

  • Framing the issue: “rules of the game”

  • Influencing the PRSP

  • Establishing the link between poverty & exclusion: “Data Stories”

  • What you measure is what you get: focus on M&E

  • Combining policy research and operations --Using a range of instruments

  • Building alliances

  • Understanding the “implementation gap”

  • Opportunism, flexibility and patience.


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1.1 Framing the Issue Assessment:

  • GSEA focuses on institutions as the “rules of the game”.

  • Caste, ethnic identity and gender presented as three interlocking social institutions that bias the rules against certain social groups and therefore need to be “reformed”.

  • Special focus on informal institutionswhich covers the cultural norms, behaviors and values usually left out of the analysis.


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1.2 Social Exclusion as an outcome of the prevailing “rules of the game”.

  • Hindu caste system and concepts of ritual impurity used to justify low status of women, Dalits and IPs or Janajatis.

  • No integrated analysis of impact of Nepal’s institutional framework and its past public policy choices on excluded groups.

  • Almost no analysis of links between social exclusion and poverty.


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2. Influencing the PRSP “rules of the game”.

  • Despite lack of good data, in late 2002, we put together a short 20 page background note on Social Exclusion for the National Planning Commission as we were just beginning the research.

  • Eurekha! NPC adopted the note and made Social Inclusion the 4th Pillar of the PRSP!


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3. “rules of the game”.Establishing the link between exclusion and poverty: “Data Stories”

  • Based on re-analysis of Census, and other national level household surveys.

  • Also Primary Data collection and Analysis on exclusion – the “3rd dimension of poverty:

    • “Measuring Empowerment and Social Inclusion” Study


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Data Story # 3.1 “rules of the game”.:Caste/Ethnic Disparities in Poverty Incidence

  • Nepal Average: 31%

  • Hill Dalits: 48%

  • Tarai Dalits:46%

  • Hill Janajati: 43%

  • Muslim: 41%

  • The incidence of poverty among Dalits as a whole is nearly 50% higher than the Nepal average.


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Data Story # 3.2 “rules of the game”.: The “Caste Penalty”

  • Average per capita consumption for Brahman/Chhetri households is 46% higher than that of Dalit households.

  • Even when background variables are controlled, Brahman/Chhetri household per capita consumption is still 15% higher.

  • This unexplained difference (Rs. 4,853 less annual per capita income), we call the “caste penalty”.



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Data story # 3.4: and well in village Nepal Caste is more powerful than Gender in determining Empowerment/Inclusion levels

  • Regression analysis showed that Caste and Gender explain 33% of variation in Composite Empowerment & Inclusion Index

    • Gender explained 7%

    • Caste/ethnicity alone explained 26%


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Data Story # 3.5 and well in village Nepal: The Good news

  • Caste and gender-based disparities at the local level can be reduced by development interventions that deliver:

    • Livelihood empowerment through access to education, income earning and asset accumulation opportunities

    • Mobilization empowerment through media exposure and membership in groups


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For example: and well in village Nepal

A Dalit who…

  • has three years of schooling (which raises the CEI by +5.7 %) and;

  • Is a member of a group (+5.9%)

    …would have the same level of empowerment and inclusion as an uneducated Brahman, Chhetri or Newar who is not a member of a group.


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4.1 M&E: What you measure is what you get. and well in village Nepal

HMG/N Poverty Monitoring & Analysis System (PMAS) set up to monitor the PRSP:

  • We pushed for gender, caste and ethnic disaggregation – to measure progress on the PRSP inclusion pillar.

  • We introduced a simplified classification of 103 social groupings used in 2001 Census.

  • Now 10 major social groups used by Central Bureau of Statistics in all up-coming national surveys.


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4.2 M&E: DFID uses GSEA framework to develop Livelihood and Social Inclusion (LSI) monitoring in all projects it supports.

Three domains of change:

  • Improving access to assets and services for the poor and excluded.

  • Increasing the voice and influence of the poor and excluded.

  • Supporting changes in the “rules of the game” that have always favored the elite.


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5. The Social Inclusion (LSI) monitoring in all projects it supports. process of getting inclusion into the country program is more important than the ESW “product”.

  • The PRSC – affirmative action in civil service in policy matrix

  • The Country Assistance Strategies of the Bank, DFID and other donors such as ADB

  • SWAps in Health and Education

  • Projects in WB and DFID

  • Poverty Assessment

  • Development Policy Review


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Parallel policy research and operational work on exclusion over extended period.

  • WB CAS :

  • Insturments in support

  • of Inclusion Pillar

  • PRSC– affirmative action

  • Community School Support

  • Project

  • Poverty Alleviation Fund

  • Education SWAp

  • Higher Education

  • Health SWAp

  • RWSS II

  • Development Policy

  • Review

  • Poverty Assessment

  • Country Dialogue

  • DFID CAP

  • Instruments in

  • support of PRSP Inclusion

  • Pillar:

  • Rural Growth

    • LFP, all LSI monitoring

  • Basic Services

  • Health sector SWAp; Primary

  • Education SWAp; WATSAN

  • GoodGovernance

  • ESP, Affirmative Action

  • Social Inclusion

  • Social Exclusion Action

  • Programme (SEAP)

  • GSEA ESW

  • Chapter 1: Introduction

  • Chapter 2: Conceptual Framework

  • Chapter 3: Socio-cultural and Historical Foundations of Exclusion in Nepal

  • Chapter 4: Macro Statistics

  • Chapter 5: Primary data from Rural Nepal

  • Chapter 6: An Overview of Public Discourse and Action on Discrimination

  • Chapter 7: Discriminatory Laws

  • Chapter 8: Gender Discrimination

  • Chapter 9: Caste Discrimination

  • Chapter 10: Ethnic Discrimination

  • Chapter 11: Access to Health Care

  • Chapter 12: Inclusive Education

  • Chapter 13: Group-based Approaches

  • Chapter 14: Affirmative Action

  • Chapter 15: What we have Learned and Priorities for Action


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6. Building Alliances over extended period.

  • Responding to needs of technocrats/ reformers in government

  • Interaction with NGOs, academics, activists and stakeholder groups

  • Other donors

  • Internally in the World Bank and DFID

  • Importance of a credible team – not the “usual suspects”


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7. Understanding the “Implementation Gap” over extended period.

  • Not just “weak institutional capacity”

  • But also a form of elite resistance to changes in the rules of the game that would reduce their power and challenge their self-identity.

  • Requires long term commitment from development partners and taping the comparative advantage of different actors in the process.


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8.Opportunism, flexibility and patience over extended period.!

  • The ninja replaces the planner: “April Revolution” a great opportunity, but who can be sure of the outcome?

  • DFID/WB partnership to continue.

  • New DFID Social Exclusion Action Program to follow up on GSEA and the inclusion agenda for the next three years


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Conclusion: over extended period.

  • Successful policy reform requires institutional change not only in the formal rules, regulations and laws -- but also in informal procedures, norms and practices.

  • And for some reforms – like social inclusion -successful implementation requires shifts in the taken-for-granted cognitive structures and values ...

  • …in other words, cultural change.


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Conclusion: over extended period.

  • Like any reform, reforms involving these deep structural changes cannot be “done” by outsiders.

  • But it does not hurt for outsiders to try to understand the dynamics of the process and offer support to local champions!


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