Challenges to educator preparation in the united states 2012
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 59

CHALLENGES TO EDUCATOR PREPARATION IN THE UNITED STATES - 2012 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 78 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

CHALLENGES TO EDUCATOR PREPARATION IN THE UNITED STATES - 2012. David Imig Professor of the Practice University of Maryland UCET Conference Hinckley, Leicestershire November 9, 2012 July 10, 2012. The Presentation. Appreciation Acknowledgements Trust and Professionalism

Download Presentation

CHALLENGES TO EDUCATOR PREPARATION IN THE UNITED STATES - 2012

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Challenges to educator preparation in the united states 2012

CHALLENGES TO EDUCATOR PREPARATION IN THE UNITED STATES - 2012

David Imig

Professor of the Practice

University of Maryland

UCET Conference

Hinckley, Leicestershire

November 9, 2012

July 10, 2012


The presentation

The Presentation

Appreciation

Acknowledgements

Trust and Professionalism

Macro-Challenges

Contextual Factors

Professional Response

Discerning Directions


Shifting autority for education schools

SHIFTING AUTORITY for Education Schools

Campus

Mission

Resources

Curriculum Committees

School Districts

Hiring Policies

Clinical Settings

Research Sites

Continuing Education

State

Program Approval

Licensure

Curricula Mandates

Resources

Federal

Rules & Resources

Accreditors &

Certifiers


Professional trust

Professional Trust

The expectation that arises within a community of regular, honest & cooperative behavior, based on commonly shared norms on the part of other members of the community: Fukuyama(1996)


What balance

What Balance?


Relational trust bryk schneider 2002

Relational TrustBryk & Schneider (2002)

Is built through day-to-day professional exchanges in the school community

Supports a moral imperative to take on the difficult work of school improvement

Facilitates school accountability for shared standards

Reduces the vulnerability of teachers

Facilitates the safety needed to experiment with new practices


Challenges to educator preparation in the united states 2012

A Context of Extraordinary Times – Anthony Bryk

ENGAGEMENT

MoreRelevance

EFFECTIVENESS

Ambitious Learning For All Students

EFFICIENCY

More Efficient

Systems

The Triple Aims of Educational Improvement


External pressures on teacher education

External Pressures on Teacher Education


Challenges to educator preparation in the united states 2012

Who is trying to solve the problem? Hint: It’s not just universities

AACTE

AILACTE

CADREI

TCSCUEI

STATE REGUL.

INTASC

NASDTEC

PUBLISHERS

TEST MAKERS

ETS/NES/ACT

CIVIL RIGHTS GROUPS

NAACP

URBAN LEAGUE

FOUNDATIONS

CARNEGIE CORP.

FORD

BROAD

ROCKEFELLER

GATES

WALDEN

NATIONAL BOARD FOR PROFESSIONAL TEACHING STANDARDS

MEDIA THINK TANKS HECHINGER INSTITUTE CARNEGIE ENDOWMENT

STATE SYSTEMS

NASH

K-16 INITIATIVES

ED TRUST

LOCAL SCHOOLS AASA NSBA

EDUCATOR

PREPARATION

SPECIAL ORGANIZATIONS HOLMES/RENAISSANCE GOODLAD/STEP/ NCTAF/ ASTEC

STATE POLICYMAKERS

NGA SHEEO NCSL ECS CCSO

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION IES TITLE II/TQ

RESEARCH ESTABLISHMENT AERA/CTP

DISCIPLINARY GROUPS IRA NCTM NSTA ACLS

C/U PRESIDENTS

NASULGC

AASCU

NAICU

ACE

TEACHER ORGANIZATIONS

NEA

AFT

BUSINESS LEADERS

Bus. Round Table/CB

ACCREDITATION AGENCIES NCATE/TEAC


Schools 2020 knowledgeworks

Schools 2020KnowledgeWorks

End of Schooling (as we Know It)

Today’s Learners – digitally savvy

Demographic Change with Minority Youth +50% by 2023 (23% Speak Non-English At Home)

Minority kids access the internet by cell phone more frequently than do majority kids

New skill sets – digital tools (online, mobile and blended learning)

Redesign the school building – laboratories and design studios – course development

Changing roles of teachers (“unbundling”)


College 2020 the chronicle of higher education

College 2020The Chronicle of Higher Education

Financial Constraints will Shape the Future of HigherEducation (Reduced Public Investment)

Greater Demand for Less Expensive, More Convenient & Flexible Higher Education (Three Year/12 Month Calendar) with Hybrid Learning

Transformed Student Population (Minorities Outnumber Majorities, Females Outnumber Males) with Part-time Students Outnumbering Full-time Students

Greater Emphasis on Teaching and Learning and Measurable Outcomes

More Emphasis on Mission/Shrinking Number of Traditional Colleges and Universities/More For-Profit Institutions


Faculty expectations for 2020

Faculty Expectations for 2020

“there is very little that students cannot find on their own if they are inspired to do so. And many of them will be surfing the Net in class. The faculty member, therefore, may become less an oracle and more an organizer and guide, someone who adds perspective and context, finds the best articles and research, and sweeps away misconceptions and bad information.” A.M. Brower, The College of 2020.

Arum, R. & Roksa, J. (2011) Academically Adrift: Limited Learning on College Campuses. University of Chicago Press.

Hacker, A. & Dreifus, C. (2010) Higher Education: How Colleges are Wasting Our Money and Failing Our Kids. St. Martin’s Press.


Binary tensions teacher education

Binary Tensions & Teacher Education

Sykes on Binary Tensions Concerning Teachers, 2010

Professional Responsibility

Cultivating Competence

Standards

Capacity Building

Working Conditions

Formative Assessments

Public Accountability

Eliminating Incompetence

Measures

Regulation

Compensation Systems

Summative Assessments


Binary tensions con t

Binary Tensions (con’t)

Commitment

Community of Peers

Support

Tender/Soft

Trust

Contract

Chain of Command

Pressure

Tough/Hard

Control


Federal education policy 2013 14

Federal Education Policy – 2013-14

Obama on Education

Romney on Education

Maintenance of RTT (with focus on common standards, new assessments, teacher evaluations, data-systems, & school turn-around)

More aggressive support for schools

Expand government loan programs and tax credits for eligible college students

Insist on more emphasis on college-student outcomes

Return to NCLB (end waivers)

Reduce federal support for education

Greater state responsibility for common standards

More charter and digital school initiatives

Cut Pell Grant availability

End government support for college loans


Election results 2012

Election Results 2012


Agenda setting for teacher education

Agenda Setting for Teacher Education


National reports from interest groups

National Reports from Interest Groups


National reports

National Reports


National reports1

National Reports


National reports2

National Reports

National Research Council (2012) Preparing Teachers: Building Evidence for Sound Policy. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.


National reports3

National Reports

  • Chief State School Officers: expected Fall 2012

    • State program approval system enhancements

    • Use state policy apparatus to designate high and low performing programs

    • Develop standards to ensure that programs produce high quality teachers

    • Provide feedback to programs for continuous improvement

  • American Federation of Teachers: expected Fall 2012

  • National Council for Teacher Quality: expected Spring 2013


Usn wr nctq project

USN&WR/NCTQ PROJECT

  • Focus on

    good programs

  • Improve mediocre

    rated programs

  • Close weak

    programs


Department of education of education negotiated

Department of Education of Education Negotiated

  • Rate every teacher prep program on a 1-4 scale

  • Effectiveness measures:

    • Value-added K-12 student test scores

    • Candidate and principal satisfaction surveys

    • Employment outcomes

    • Professional accreditation or state approval considering clinical, rigor of selection and content and pedagogical skills of candidate

  • Only top-rated programs eligible for student financial aid (TEACH Grants)

  • New precedent: state is arbiter of eligibility for student financial aid


The cliff

The Cliff

Impending sequester – 8.4% cut to all programs

Impending debt ceiling increase

Expiration of tax cuts

Lame Duck Session of 112th Congress


Teacher quality matters no child left behind act hqt teaching ayp schools

TEACHER QUALITY MATTERSNo Child Left Behind ActHQT Teaching = AYP Schools

Highly Qualified Teachers Matter

HQTs possess Content Mastery

HQTs use SBR Evidence to Produce High Quality Student Performance

“Value-added Assessment” Offers a Tool to Show that HQT Teachers Matter (Sanders & Rivers)


Highly qualified definition

“Highly Qualified” Definition

Data required to determine how many teachers-in-training are called ‘highly qualified’

How many are teaching students with disabilities, English learners, low-income students

Report due 12/31/13

One-year extension


Council on accreditation for educator preparation caep

Council on Accreditation for Educator Preparation (CAEP)

Merger underway

Commission on Standards and Performance Reporting – 5 working groups and 41 members

Draft standards out for public comment early 2013

Final standards late 2013

2 year transition period through 2015

Spring 2016 earliest CAEP standards would be required


A wake up call

A Wake Up Call


Why turn teacher education upside down

Why turn teacher education upside down?

  • Real and Persistent Education Challenges: Too many students are not succeeding—achievement gaps

    • Teaching in a diverse society

    • Technology and media rich environment

    • Comparison in international settings (US ranks 24th in math, 17th in Science)

    • Preparing students for today’s workforce

  • The economy

    • Faster, cheaper, better

    • Want to spend money on what works

    • States and feds are questioning the dollars they spend

  • Focus on Accountability

    • Teachers and preparation programs under scrutiny

    • Must show value added (master’s degree)


Why are we vulnerable

Why are We Vulnerable?

  • No common definition of an effective program

  • Perceived Lack of a Profession:

    • No shared body of knowledge

    • 50 different systems

  • Accreditation: Unwillingness to Deal with Weak Programs

  • Need for research

    • Linking preparation and teacher professional development to student achievement


The great debate in teacher education

The Great Debate in Teacher Education

Traditionalists

Support conventional, rigorous university-based teacher preparation and robust clinical experiences

Reformers

Emphasize performance over credentials and show skepticism about conventional licensure and preparation


Trust vs control

TRUST vs. CONTROL


Focus on data and data based decision making

Focus on Data and Data Based Decision Making


Trust responsibility

TRUST = RESPONSIBILITY

To Whom Are We Accountable?

To Whom Are We Responsible?


Effective teachers effective teaching

EFFECTIVE TEACHERS – EFFECTIVE TEACHING

Better Candidates –higher GPAs, better test scores, more content knowledge, more professional dispositions, more social capital, greater potential

Better Teaching – instructional capabilities for teaching all children, routines for promoting student engagement, basic classroom management practices, belief in student capabilities, ability to establish classroom norms, subject specific PCK


An increased focus on teacher quality

An Increased Focus on Teacher Quality

Public Policy makers, politicians, philanthropists, the media, the public, and “think tanks” across the political spectrum assert that the quality of teachers must improve

Research Evidence: high quality teachers are critical to raising educational standards

However, we lack a compelling roadmap


Challenges to educator preparation in the united states 2012

Effectiveness of Growth in Student LearningValue-Added Teacher PreparationAssessment ModelDeveloped by George Noell, Ph.D. & Kristin Gansle, Ph.D.Louisiana State University and A&M College

Predict achievement of individual students based on prior achievement, demographics, and attendance

Assess actual student achievement

Link growth of student achievement to new teachers and teacher preparation programs that taught the new teachers

Calculate degree to which students taught by new teachers met achievement of similar students taught by experienced teachers

Act on results

Slides from Dr. Jeanne Burns’ (LA Board of Regents) and Dr. Vickie Gentry’s (Northwestern State University of LA) presentation at the AACTE Pre-Con Workshop “Evaluation Nation”, February 24, 2011


North carolina teacher education review

North Carolina Teacher Education Review

  • Portal analysis: Are teachers from some portals more effective classroom teachers than peers who entered the profession through another portal?

  • Model compares the graduates of UNC institutions with the aggregate of all other teachers in the state

  • Model compares 12 categories of teacher preparation with the aggregate

  • Value-added methodology with 28 variables

  • Limited to teachers with < 5 years experience

Slide by Mary Lynne Calhoun, University of North Carolina Charlotte


Ohio report card

Ohio Report Card

  • Minimum Standards

    • Pass rates on state licensure exam

    • Performance on the Teacher Performance Assessment

    • Value-added growth metric

  • Excellence and Innovation

    • Placement of graduates in hard-to-staff schools

    • Quality of partnerships with all P-12 schools

    • Partnerships to improve low-performing schools

    • Education students gaining international experiences

    • Use of innovative technologies for instruction

    • Other initiatives

  • Continuous Improvement

    • Quality of candidates entering teaching preparation programs

    • Quality of field and clinical experiences

    • Satisfaction of teachers with the quality of their preparation programs

    • Performance surveys from mentors and employers

    • % of newly hired teachers completing the state residency program?


The bottom line

The Bottom Line

How do we identify and measure high quality teachers?

How do we hold teacher education programs accountable?

How do we link teacher performance and student achievement?


Judging teachers judging schools

Judging Teachers, Judging Schools

  • Regardless of how they’re viewed, teachers are vitally important for the success of students.

    • “Within grade levels, the single most dominant factor affecting student academic gain is teacher effect.” - Wright, Horn, and Sanders, 1996


The difficult to answer questions

The Difficult-to-Answer Questions

Do we train or do we educate future teachers?

Are longer programs better than shorter programs?

Which modes of instruction should be taught?

Are programs focused on subject matter knowledge better than those focused on socio-cultural theory?

What background/ experiences should future teachers bring to the classroom?

Should we rely on veteran classroom teachers or university faculty to train teachers?

What models of classroom management should be evident?

Can we shape the personal disposition of teacher candidates?


Competing conceptions of education schools

Competing Conceptions of Education Schools

Professionals

Education schools like medical schools

Dominate market

Expansion of criteria to practice

Standardization of program

Highlight inputs

Professionals set norms for practice

Professional controls

Heavily subsidized

Responsive to generic needs and concerns

Reformers

Education schools like business schools

Compete in market

Minimal criteria to practice

Diversification of programs

Focus on outcomes

Market defines quality of practice

Public controls

Heavily dependent on market

Responsive to particular/ specific needs


So what is the answer

So what is the answer?

The National Research Council has concluded that there is little evidence that supports any one way of preparing teachers.


Our response

Our Response?


Traditionalists v reformers an ideological showdown

Traditionalists v. Reformers:An Ideological Showdown

  • Traditionalists

  • Teacher education should be extended to accommodate changing societal demands on students

  • Holistic assessment of student achievement; student need to be prepared to be successful in highly technical, media rich society

  • Focus on greater mastery of content and pedagogy

  • Advocate for rigorous clinical preparation, induction and teacher residency models

  • Reformers

  • Less federal and more state authority

  • Greater conformity across teacher preparation

  • Standards setting, alignment and accountability

  • Data-driven decision making

  • Value-added assessment of students

  • Student success on standardized assessments is primary

  • Introduce competition in teacher preparation models


Proposed solutions responses from teacher preparation

Proposed Solutions: Responses from Teacher Preparation

A Renewed Focus on Clinical Practice

Blue Ribbon Panel

CLINICAL PREPARATION AND PARTNERSHIPS FOR IMPROVED STUDENT LEARNING


Focus on clinical practice

Focus on Clinical Practice

Establish a framework to re-design educator preparation

Gap between how teachers are prepared and what schools need

Profession needs an entirely new system of teacher preparation


Focus on clinical practice ncate brp recommendations

Focus on Clinical Practice: NCATE BRP Recommendations

Focus on Elementary and Secondary Student Learning in Teacher Preparation

Integrate Clinical Preparation Throughout Every Facet of Teacher Education

Revamp Curriculum Inventive and Clinical Staffing

Expand the Knowledge Base


Focus on clinical practice navigating the complexities of school university partnerships

Focus on Clinical Practice:Navigating the Complexities of School-University Partnerships


Accreditation and standards setting

Accreditation and Standards-Setting

Create uniform standards with evidence based examples to assess teacher education programs and guide both traditional and non-traditional routes.


Proposed solutions responses from teacher preparation1

Proposed Solutions: Responses from Teacher Preparation

Assessing Teacher Candidate Performance

  • American Association of Colleges of Teacher Education and Stanford University have formed partnership to develop and implement tool to assess future teachers

    • Assess candidates in a way that provides evidence of preparation effectiveness, supports program improvement, and informs policy makers


Assessing teacher candidate performance

Assessing Teacher Candidate Performance

Teacher Performance Assessment (TPA)

  • Gathers and uses evidence of teaching performance to improve teaching and teacher preparation

  • Future teachers document and analyze their teaching and collect and evaluate evidence of student learning

  • Portfolio is evaluated by highly rained raters who score the materials in a consistent manner against specific criteria


Assessing teacher candidate performance1

Assessing Teacher Candidate Performance


Assessing teachewhr candidate performance

Assessing TeachewhrCandidate Performance


Where next for educator preparation

WHERE NEXT FOR EDUCATOR PREPARATION?

Focus on Individual Student - MCE & IDEA & VAM Drive Consideration to the Level of the Individual Student

Fundamental Changes in “Teacher Work” Occur – Combinations of “Short-Termers” & “Long-Termers” with “Drop-ins & Drop-outs” – Contract Teachers or “Taxi Teachers”

Consideration of the “Learning Spaces” Where Teachers Work - Malls, Museums, Theatres, Businesses, 3rd Sector Organizations

Technological Innovations and their Applications to Learning – Tech-savvy Kids - Merging of Classroom & Online Learning

Impact of Problem-Based Learning – Globalism, Environmentalism, Public Health Challenges, Energy Sufficiency

On-Going Formative Assessment

More Emphasis on Learning Communities


Rebuilding trust

Rebuilding Trust


For further information

For Further Information

David G. Imig

Professor of the Practice

College of Education

University of Maryland

[email protected]

301-405-7850


  • Login