CHALLENGES TO EDUCATOR PREPARATION IN THE UNITED STATES - 2012. David Imig Professor of the Practice University of Maryland UCET Conference Hinckley, Leicestershire November 9, 2012 July 10, 2012. The Presentation. Appreciation Acknowledgements Trust and Professionalism
Professor of the Practice
University of Maryland
November 9, 2012
July 10, 2012
Trust and Professionalism
Rules & Resources
The expectation that arises within a community of regular, honest & cooperative behavior, based on commonly shared norms on the part of other members of the community: Fukuyama(1996)
Is built through day-to-day professional exchanges in the school community
Supports a moral imperative to take on the difficult work of school improvement
Facilitates school accountability for shared standards
Reduces the vulnerability of teachers
Facilitates the safety needed to experiment with new practices
A Context of Extraordinary 2012Times – Anthony Bryk
Ambitious Learning For All Students
The Triple Aims of Educational Improvement
CIVIL RIGHTS GROUPS
NATIONAL BOARD FOR PROFESSIONAL TEACHING STANDARDS
MEDIA THINK TANKS HECHINGER INSTITUTE CARNEGIE ENDOWMENT
LOCAL SCHOOLS AASA NSBA
SPECIAL ORGANIZATIONS HOLMES/RENAISSANCE GOODLAD/STEP/ NCTAF/ ASTEC
NGA SHEEO NCSL ECS CCSO
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION IES TITLE II/TQ
RESEARCH ESTABLISHMENT AERA/CTP
DISCIPLINARY GROUPS IRA NCTM NSTA ACLS
Bus. Round Table/CB
ACCREDITATION AGENCIES NCATE/TEAC
End of Schooling (as we Know It)
Today’s Learners – digitally savvy
Demographic Change with Minority Youth +50% by 2023 (23% Speak Non-English At Home)
Minority kids access the internet by cell phone more frequently than do majority kids
New skill sets – digital tools (online, mobile and blended learning)
Redesign the school building – laboratories and design studios – course development
Changing roles of teachers (“unbundling”)
Financial Constraints will Shape the Future of HigherEducation (Reduced Public Investment)
Greater Demand for Less Expensive, More Convenient & Flexible Higher Education (Three Year/12 Month Calendar) with Hybrid Learning
Transformed Student Population (Minorities Outnumber Majorities, Females Outnumber Males) with Part-time Students Outnumbering Full-time Students
Greater Emphasis on Teaching and Learning and Measurable Outcomes
More Emphasis on Mission/Shrinking Number of Traditional Colleges and Universities/More For-Profit Institutions
“there is very little that students cannot find on their own if they are inspired to do so. And many of them will be surfing the Net in class. The faculty member, therefore, may become less an oracle and more an organizer and guide, someone who adds perspective and context, finds the best articles and research, and sweeps away misconceptions and bad information.” A.M. Brower, The College of 2020.
Arum, R. & Roksa, J. (2011) Academically Adrift: Limited Learning on College Campuses. University of Chicago Press.
Hacker, A. & Dreifus, C. (2010) Higher Education: How Colleges are Wasting Our Money and Failing Our Kids. St. Martin’s Press.
Sykes on Binary Tensions Concerning Teachers, 2010
Community of Peers
Chain of Command
Obama on Education
Romney on Education
Maintenance of RTT (with focus on common standards, new assessments, teacher evaluations, data-systems, & school turn-around)
More aggressive support for schools
Expand government loan programs and tax credits for eligible college students
Insist on more emphasis on college-student outcomes
Return to NCLB (end waivers)
Reduce federal support for education
Greater state responsibility for common standards
More charter and digital school initiatives
Cut Pell Grant availability
End government support for college loans
National Research Council (2012) Preparing Teachers: Building Evidence for Sound Policy. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
Impending sequester – 8.4% cut to all programs
Impending debt ceiling increase
Expiration of tax cuts
Lame Duck Session of 112th Congress
Highly Qualified Teachers Matter
HQTs possess Content Mastery
HQTs use SBR Evidence to Produce High Quality Student Performance
“Value-added Assessment” Offers a Tool to Show that HQT Teachers Matter (Sanders & Rivers)
Data required to determine how many teachers-in-training are called ‘highly qualified’
How many are teaching students with disabilities, English learners, low-income students
Report due 12/31/13
Commission on Standards and Performance Reporting – 5 working groups and 41 members
Draft standards out for public comment early 2013
Final standards late 2013
2 year transition period through 2015
Spring 2016 earliest CAEP standards would be required
Support conventional, rigorous university-based teacher preparation and robust clinical experiences
Emphasize performance over credentials and show skepticism about conventional licensure and preparation
To Whom Are We Accountable?
To Whom Are We Responsible?
Better Candidates –higher GPAs, better test scores, more content knowledge, more professional dispositions, more social capital, greater potential
Better Teaching – instructional capabilities for teaching all children, routines for promoting student engagement, basic classroom management practices, belief in student capabilities, ability to establish classroom norms, subject specific PCK
Public Policy makers, politicians, philanthropists, the media, the public, and “think tanks” across the political spectrum assert that the quality of teachers must improve
Research Evidence: high quality teachers are critical to raising educational standards
However, we lack a compelling roadmap
Effectiveness of Growth in Student Learning universitiesValue-Added Teacher PreparationAssessment ModelDeveloped by George Noell, Ph.D. & Kristin Gansle, Ph.D.Louisiana State University and A&M College
Predict achievement of individual students based on prior achievement, demographics, and attendance
Assess actual student achievement
Link growth of student achievement to new teachers and teacher preparation programs that taught the new teachers
Calculate degree to which students taught by new teachers met achievement of similar students taught by experienced teachers
Act on results
Slides from Dr. Jeanne Burns’ (LA Board of Regents) and Dr. Vickie Gentry’s (Northwestern State University of LA) presentation at the AACTE Pre-Con Workshop “Evaluation Nation”, February 24, 2011
Slide by Mary Lynne Calhoun, University of North Carolina Charlotte
How do we identify and measure high quality teachers?
How do we hold teacher education programs accountable?
How do we link teacher performance and student achievement?
Do we train or do we educate future teachers?
Are longer programs better than shorter programs?
Which modes of instruction should be taught?
Are programs focused on subject matter knowledge better than those focused on socio-cultural theory?
What background/ experiences should future teachers bring to the classroom?
Should we rely on veteran classroom teachers or university faculty to train teachers?
What models of classroom management should be evident?
Can we shape the personal disposition of teacher candidates?
Education schools like medical schools
Expansion of criteria to practice
Standardization of program
Professionals set norms for practice
Responsive to generic needs and concerns
Education schools like business schools
Compete in market
Minimal criteria to practice
Diversification of programs
Focus on outcomes
Market defines quality of practice
Heavily dependent on market
Responsive to particular/ specific needs
The National Research Council has concluded that there is little evidence that supports any one way of preparing teachers.
A Renewed Focus on Clinical Practice
Blue Ribbon Panel
CLINICAL PREPARATION AND PARTNERSHIPS FOR IMPROVED STUDENT LEARNING
Establish a framework to re-design educator preparation
Gap between how teachers are prepared and what schools need
Profession needs an entirely new system of teacher preparation
Focus on Elementary and Secondary Student Learning in Teacher Preparation
Integrate Clinical Preparation Throughout Every Facet of Teacher Education
Revamp Curriculum Inventive and Clinical Staffing
Expand the Knowledge Base
Create uniform standards with evidence based examples to assess teacher education programs and guide both traditional and non-traditional routes.
Assessing Teacher Candidate Performance
Teacher Performance Assessment (TPA)
Focus on Individual Student - MCE & IDEA & VAM Drive Consideration to the Level of the Individual Student
Fundamental Changes in “Teacher Work” Occur – Combinations of “Short-Termers” & “Long-Termers” with “Drop-ins & Drop-outs” – Contract Teachers or “Taxi Teachers”
Consideration of the “Learning Spaces” Where Teachers Work - Malls, Museums, Theatres, Businesses, 3rd Sector Organizations
Technological Innovations and their Applications to Learning – Tech-savvy Kids - Merging of Classroom & Online Learning
Impact of Problem-Based Learning – Globalism, Environmentalism, Public Health Challenges, Energy Sufficiency
On-Going Formative Assessment
More Emphasis on Learning Communities