Work Motivation
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Work Motivation. Chapter 12. Work Motivation: Overview. Five Critical Concepts in Motivation Work Motivation Theories Overview and Synthesis of Work Motivation Theories The Application of Motivational Strategies. Work Motivation: Definition.

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Work motivation

Work Motivation

Chapter 12


Work motivation

Work Motivation: Overview

Five Critical Concepts in Motivation

Work Motivation Theories

Overview and Synthesis of Work Motivation Theories

The Application of Motivational Strategies


Work motivation

Work Motivation: Definition

Work motivation is a set of energetic forces that originate both within as well as beyond an individual’s being, to initiate work-related behavior, and to determine its form, direction, intensity, and duration

3 Dimensions

Direction

Intensity

Persistence


Work motivation

Work Motivation: 5 Concepts

Behavior: Action from which we infer motivation

Performance: Evaluation of behavior

Ability: Determinant of behavior

Situational Constraints: Determinant of behavior

Motivation: Determinant of behavior

Performance as a Function of BEHAVIOR

SITUATIONAL CONSTRAINTS

x

-

=

ABILITY

MOTIVATION


Overview of work motivation theories

Overview of Work Motivation Theories

  • Need theories

  • Cognitive theories

  • Job design theories

  • Behavioral theories


Work motivation

Work Motivation Theories: Need Hierarchy Theory

Based on sequential ordering of human needs that individuals seek to fulfill in serial progression.

  • Maslow’s Need Hierarchy

  • Alderfer’s ERG Theory

  • McClelland’s Need for Achievement Theory


Work motivation

Work Motivation Theories: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Self-Actualization

(Self-fulfillment)

Esteem

(Recognition from others)

Social

(Company and acceptance of others)

Safety

(Security & shelter)

Physiological

(Air, food, water, etc.)


Work motivation

Work Motivation Theories: Alderfer’s ERG Theory

Self-Actualization

(Self-fulfillment)

Growth

Esteem

(Recognition from others)

Relatedness

Social

(Company and acceptance of others)

Existence

Safety

(Security & shelter)

Physiological

(Air, food, water, etc.)


Work motivation

Work Motivation Theories: McClelland’s Need for Achievement Theory

People with a high need for achievement (high n’Ach) will put more effort into work than people without this need (low n’Ach)

High n’Achs tend to desire high levels of achievement whereas low n’Achs tend to only avoid failure

Low n’Achs can be trained to develop a need for achievement


Work motivation

Work Motivation Theories: Equity Theory

Equity Theory: Motivation theory based on the social comparison process of examining the ratio of inputs and outcomes between oneself and a comparison other.

Person compares themselves with Other

Person perceived what they input into job

Person perceives what they benefit from job

Person compares input-benefit ratio of him/herself to Other

Adams (1965)


Work motivation

self-outcomes

other’s-outcomes

vs

self-inputs

other’s-inputs

Work Motivation Theories: Equity Theory

Equity occurs when each person has equal ratios (e.g., 50:50)

Underpayment equity: The sense of unfairness derived from the perception that the ratio of one’s own inputs and outcomes is lower than the ratio of a comparison other.

Overpayment equity: The sense of unfairness derived from the perception that the ratio of one's own inputs and outcomes is greater that the ration of comparison other.


Work motivation theories equity theory

Work Motivation Theories: Equity Theory

  • You: 50Other: 50 Fair/Equitable 50 50

  • You:50Other: 75 Underpayment 50 50

  • You:75Other: 50 Overpayment 50 50


Work motivation

Work Motivation Theories: Equity Theory

Equity theory posits that people who perceive an inequity will try to reduce inequity

  • Cognitive

  • Distort own inputs or outcomes

  • Distort Other’s inputs or outcomes

  • Change comparison Other

  • Behavior

  • Change inputs

  • Change outcomes

  • Get other to change inputs or outcomes

  • Quit job


Work motivation theories equity theory1

Work Motivation Theories: Equity Theory

  • Equity Theory Underpayment Inequity Predictions

    • Hourly Wages

      • Workers will decrease effort

      • Decreases in product quality and quantity

    • Piece Rate Wages

      • To compensate for underpayment, workers would produce more, but much lower quality


Work motivation theories equity theory2

Work Motivation Theories: Equity Theory

  • Equity Theory Overpayment Inequity Predictions

    • Hourly Wages

      • Workers should expend more effort (i.e., increase inputs)

    • Piece Rate Wages

      • Workers should expend more effort to produce fewer, but more high quality products


Work motivation

effort

performance

outcome

expectancy

instrumentality

Work Motivation Theories: General Expectancy Theories

  • Vroom’s VIE theory – effort (force) is determined by:

    • Perceived effort-performance expectancies

    • Perceptions that performance will lead to certain outcomes (instrumentalities)

    • Valence of outcomes


Work motivation theories expectancy theory

Work Motivation Theories: Expectancy Theory

  • Motivation is derived from relationships among:

    • Valence

      • value of outcomes

    • Instrumentality

      • performance-reward contingencies

    • Expectancy

      • effort-performance contingencies

        Force = Expectancy * Σ (Valences * Instrumentalities)


Work motivation

praise from parents

good grades

graduate school

good job

lack of social life

less friends

expectancies

effort

performance

outcome

no fun

instrumentalities

valences

Work Motivation Theories: Expectancy Theory

studying


Work motivation

Work Motivation Theories: Locke’sGoal-Setting Theory

  • People set goals for themselves and they are

  • motivated to work toward these goals because

  • achieving them is rewarding

    • Goals affect task performance by

      • directing attention and action,

    • mobilizing energy expenditure or effort,

    • prolonging effort overtime (persistence) and

    • motivating the individual to develop relevant strategies for goal attainment


Work motivation theories locke s goal setting theory

Work Motivation Theories: Locke’sGoal-Setting Theory

  • Performance is best when:

    • Goals are specific

    • Goals are challenging

    • Workers have necessary ability

    • Rewards are clearly understood and provided

    • Management supports goal attainment

    • Provides necessary time & resources

    • Goals are internalized and accepted by employees

    • Feedback is provided


Work motivation

Work Motivation Theories: Self-Regulation Theories

  • Major components

    • Goals

    • Self-monitoring or self-evaluation

    • Role of feedback

    • Self-efficacy

    • Goal revision

  • Empirical tests of the theory

  • Evaluation of the theory


Work motivation

Work Motivation Theories: Job-based Theories

Source of motivation is primarily in the content of the jobs employees perform

  • Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory (also referred to as Motivation-Hygiene Theory)

  • Job Characteristics Theory


Work motivation

Work Motivation Theories: Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory

  • Meeting lower-level needs will prevent workers from becoming dissatisfied; they do not influence work motivation

    • hygiene factors

      • e.g., pay, fringe benefits, relations with coworkers, physical working conditions

  • Only conditions that allow people to fill upper-level needs for esteem and self-actualization will increase work motivation

    • Motivator factors

      • e.g., level of challenge and discretion, intrinsic interest, opportunities to be creative


Work motivation

Experienced meaningfulness

Job Characteristics Theory

Core job dimensions

Critical Psychological states

Personal and work outcomes

Task identity

Satisfaction

Motivation

Quality of Work

Low turnover and absenteeism

Skill variety

Task significance

Experienced responsibility

Autonomy

Knowledge of results

Feedback

Growth need strength


Work motivation

task identity

skill variety

task significance

S

X

autonomy

X

feedback

=

motivation

3

Job Characteristics Theory


Work motivation theories reinforcement theory

Work Motivation Theories: Reinforcement Theory

  • Reinforcement Theory

  • Based on principles of behaviorism

  • Reinforcement

    • a stimulus that increases the probability of any given behavior

  • Punishment

    • consequences that make a behavior less likely


Work motivation

Work Motivation Theories: Reinforcement Theory

  • Schedules of reinforcement

    • continuous

    • intermittent

      • fixed interval

      • variable interval

      • fixed ratio

      • variable ratio


Work motivation

Overview and Synthesis of Work Motivation Theories

  • Distal construct theories: Exert indirect effects on behavior

  • Proximal construct theories: Begin with the individual’s goals and characteristics of the workplace that directly influence behavior.

  • Genetic bases of motivation


Work motivation

Overview and Synthesis of Work Motivation Theories

Will to achieve from Big 5 Personality Theory

Genetics/Heredity

Needs/Personality/Interests

Need hierarchy theory

Equity theory

Motives

Expectancy theory

Cognitive choice

Goal-setting theory

Goals

Feedback/ Expectation discrepancy

Self-regulation theory

Job characteristic theory

Core job attributes

Distal constructs Proximal Constructs


Work motivation

Seven Practices to Raise Motivation

  • Ensure that workers motives and values are appropriatefor the jobs on which they are placed

  • Make jobs attractive and consistent with workers’ motives and values.

  • Define work goals that are clear, challenging, attractive, and attainable.


Work motivation

Seven Practices to Raise Motivation

  • Provide workers with the personnel and material resources that facilitate their effectiveness.

  • Create supportive social environments.

  • 6. Reinforce performance.

  • 7. Harmonize all these elements into a consistent socio-technical system.


Work motivation

Application of Motivational Strategies

  • There is no “best” theory.

  • It may be necessary to match motivation strategies with varying organizational context.


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