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Intensification of maize-legume based systems in the semi-arid areas of Tanzania to increase farm productivity and improve farming natural resource base Kimaro , A, Swai , E ., Ganga Rao , NVRP and Okori, P. Project Site.

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Intensification of maize-legume based systems in the semi-arid areas of Tanzania to increase farm productivity and improve farming natural resource base

Kimaro, A, Swai, E., Ganga Rao, NVRP and Okori, P

Project site
Project Site

Kiteto district is found in the Manyara region with an estimated population of 152,757

Kongwa District is found in Dodoma Region. We are working in Mlali ward with a population of about 28,000 people

Context of the Interventions

  • Challenges to increased production/productivity

  • 1.Fragile farming environments

    • Erosion prone farms

    • Degraded land scapes

    • Low soils fertility

  • 2. Degradative farming (crop/livestock) pracices

    • Overgrazing

    • Limited integration

  • 3.Low production potential varieties grown

  • 4. Local demand for legumes (consumption) is low

  • Context of the Interventions

    • The Opportunities

    • Access to markets (Kibaigwa) local and outside of the region

    • Under good management potential for high production

    • Livestock is available (poultry, livestock) for food and manure

    • Contribute to nutrition and crop productivity outcomes (leaverage other FTF programes TUBoreshe Chakula, NaFaka)

    • Management and yield enhancing technlogies exist

    PM Mizengo Pinda

    Africa rising principles
    Africa RISING Principles

    • Research designed to test hypotheses that are linked to outputs and developmental outcomes identified by the Africa RISING programme.

    • Problem-focused and demand driven research activities influenced by market demand, evolving policy environments, and changing social structures the needs of farmers.

    • Ensuring that research outputs are targeted effectively to development needs and are feasible for target farm households to implement.

    • Implemented at several levels with

      • Core research outputs that are likely to be common across the programme;

      • Diverse research activities as guided by the individual projects;

      • Flexible methods and tools to fit individual research activities and the context.

    • Scaling will be at a pilot level and beyond through the development of investment plans with development agencies.

    Project theory of change
    Project Theory of Change

    ICRISAT Impact


    Smallholder farm households especially women and children move out of poverty, food and nutritional insecurity while maintaining and/or improving ecosystem stability

    Sphere of interest


    Sphere of influence

    Africa Rising outcomes

    Outcome 1

    Increased crop yields in maize-legume farming systems by up to 100% for cereals and 80% for legumes.

    Outcome 2

    Improved land productivity in robust agro-ecologies and productive farming and crop systems

    Project outputs

    Output 4

    Post-harvest processing utilization and food safety improved nutrition outcomes

    Output 1

    Introduce, & evaluate improved varieties of maize and grain legumes

    Output 2

    Deploy ISFT to improve plant nutrition, yields and agro-ecosystem resilience

    Output 3

    Validate & promote land management options for sustainable intensification

    Outputs and activities

    Preconditions amongst in action site

    Sphere of influence

    Farmer organisations are functional & supportive of the project

    Existing land tenure systems allows for farm to landscape level interventions

    Government policy is supportive of investments in agriculture

    Opportunities for improved access to seed and innovations support intensification

    Preconditions among project partners

    Novel & multidisciplinary approaches used to improve agricultural innovation

    High quality staff motivated to work for project success

    Team operations is at optimum and well supported

    Strengthened M&E and learning in place for team

    The partners
    The Partners

    Including policy institutions, infrastructure, human and natural resources

    Ultimate beneficiaries, the farmers

    R&D stakeholders, and their communities including NGOs

    Agriculture development environment

    NARES, IARCs and institutions

    Farmers and their organizations

    Intensification model
    Intensification Model

    Improved agricultural productivity and nutrition outcomes

    Experimental approach
    Experimental approach

    Scaling up and out



    Increasing resilience and productivity


    Year 4

    Year 1

    Year 2

    • RO1 to inform investment options (Alt: Experiment with options to underpin scaling up and out).

    • Increased productivity (new varieties- at scale), land use for livestock and poultry

    • Increase land productivity (nutrient use, decrease degradation)

    • Address house nutrition and food security

    Year 3

    Summary of progress
    Summary of Progress

    • Benchmarking:

      • Identifying options for piloting and up-scaling into our intensification model are being done.

        • New varieties,

        • Seed systems for up-and out-scaling

        • Investigations into production environments

    • Strategic partnership:

      • All direct implementers (contracted partners), and associate partners (critical partners non contractual partners) as well as community leadership are on board.

    Wp 1 on farm evaluation of improved legume cereals varieties
    WP 1: On-farm evaluation of improved legume & cereals varieties

    Intercrop Kogwa & PVS at Moleti Kiteto

    Wp 2 integrated soil fertility management
    WP 2: Integrated soil fertility management

    Wp 3 land and water management soil and water conservation
    WP 3: Land and water management (soil and water conservation)

    Farmers examine a maize crop produced under improved managed

    Wp 4 post harvest processing utilization and nutrition and safety
    WP 4: Post harvest processing, utilization and nutrition and safety

    Wp 4 post harvest processing utilization and nutrition and safety1
    WP 4: Post harvest processing, utilization and nutrition and safety

    Wp 5 crop livestock poultry integration for productivity enhancement
    WP 5: Crop-livestock & poultry integration for productivity enhancement

    Wp 5 crop livestock poultry integration for productivity enhancement1
    WP 5: Crop-livestock & poultry integration for productivity enhancement

    Lessons learnt
    Lessons learnt

    • R4D innovation platform:

      • Convergence & complementarity: Complement of partners is fluid. Convergence of thrusts takes time and largely influence by extraneous factors

      • Benchmanks are critical: R&D investment typologies are needed to implementation. (Helps to isolate Research from development issues)

      • Partnerships. Intensification involves complex institutional and operational relationships. Limited understanding of what works and does not is critical for scaling up and design of appropriate interventions.

      • Champions for change: Champions at community level are essential. This may compound design of evaluations because such people are usually targeted by others

    Thank you!

    ICRISAT is a member of the CGIAR Consortium