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PLAGIARISM and HOW TO AVOID IT. A Workshop from the Writing Support Center . What Exactly Is Plagiarism?. Plagiarism is generally defined as representing another person’s words or ideas as your own by omitting proper citations and/or quotation marks. .

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Plagiarism and how to avoid it

PLAGIARISM and HOW TO AVOID IT

A Workshop from the Writing Support Center


What exactly is plagiarism
What Exactly Is Plagiarism?

  • Plagiarism is generally defined as representing another person’s words or ideas as your own by omitting proper citations and/or quotation marks.


All of the following are considered plagiarism if not cited quoted properly
All of the following are considered plagiarism if not cited/quoted properly:

  • “Copying and pasting text from online media

  • Copying and pasting text from any website

  • Transcribing text from any printed material (books, magazines, encyclopedias or newspapers)

  • Slightly modifying text from any of the above

  • Using photographs, video or audio without citing the source

  • Using another student’s work and claiming it as your own, even with permission, is unethical and treated as plagiarism.

  • Translation from one language to another is not using your own words.

  • Using an essay that you wrote for another class without permission of BOTH instructors is considered ‘self-plagiarism.’”

    (http://www.ehhs.chich.edu/`mspears/whatis.html)


3 general types of plagiarism
3 General Types of Plagiarism: cited/quoted properly:

  • Borrowing Ideas Without Giving Credit

  • Borrowing Language Without Giving Credit

  • Borrowing Your Work From Another Class Without Permission of Both Instructors (Self-plagiarism)


Borrowing ideas without giving credit
BORROWING IDEAS WITHOUT GIVING CREDIT cited/quoted properly:

When you use someone else’s:

  • IDEAS, OPINIONS, or TERMINOLOGY

  • THEORIES

  • FACTS/STATISTICS

  • GRAPHS, PHOTOS, VIDEOS

    You must give credit to the source.


Idea theory fact
Idea . . . Theory. . . Fact cited/quoted properly:

  • Liberal feminists identify both “internal” and “external” barriers to women’s achievement (Jaggar, 2004, p. 194).

  • “Diffusion of responsibility” occurs when people in a group deny individual responsibility for their own behavior (Johnson, 2002, p. 23).

  • Fourteen American children die from gunfire each day (“Child,” 2006).


But common knowledge needn t be cited
BUT… cited/quoted properly:COMMON KNOWLEDGE NEEDN’T BE CITED

COMMON KNOWLEDGE = GENERAL INFORMATION THAT CAN BE FOUND IN MANY SOURCES

EXAMPLES:

  • LINCOLN’S BIRTHDAY

  • THE DATE WORLD WAR II ENDED

  • MARTIN LUTHER KING JR.’S BIRTHPLACE


Which of the following require citations why
Which of the following require citations? Why? cited/quoted properly:

  • Mountain lions can roam as much as 100 square miles.

  • Twenty percent of all American children go to school without having eaten a proper breakfast.

  • Emily Dickinson was born in Amherst, Massachusetts in 1830.

  • Einstein is best known for developing the theory of relativity.


Borrowing language
BORROWING LANGUAGE cited/quoted properly:

Each of the following is considered plagiarism:

  • Borrowing significant phrases from the original text without using quotation marks

  • Changing words from one form to another (e.g., a verb to its noun counterpart) and taking credit for the language as your own.

  • Borrowing the structure of the original sentence too closely


Okay so how do i avoid borrowing language from my source
OKAY, SO HOW DO I AVOID BORROWING LANGUAGE FROM MY SOURCE??? cited/quoted properly:

  • Paraphrase it.

  • Summarize it.

  • Quote it.


The how to s paraphrasing
THE HOW-TO’S: PARAPHRASING cited/quoted properly:

1. Read the passage until its meaning is clear.

2. Close the book and restate the main point and any important details in your own words.

3. Check your version with the original to ensure its accuracy and originality.

4. Quote any borrowed phrases or terminology.

5. Write your source next to the paraphrase

paraphrase

  • http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/research/r_paraphr.html


Original Version* cited/quoted properly:

“If the existence of a signing ape was unsettling for

linguists, it was also startling news for animal behaviorists”

(Davis, 2005, p. 28).

Unacceptable Paraphrase

Davis (2005) observed that the existence of a signing ape unsettled

linguists and startled animal behaviorists.

Acceptable Paraphrase

When they learned of an ape’s ability to use sign

language, both linguists and animal behaviorists were taken

by surprise (Davis, 2005).

*This slide directly quoted from D. Hacker’s A Writer’s Reference , 2003, p. 385


Try paraphrasing this
Try paraphrasing this: cited/quoted properly:

“Students frequently overuse direct quotations in taking

notes, and as a result, they overuse quotations in the

final [research] paper. Probably only about 10% of your

final manuscript should appear as directly quoted

matter. Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount

of exact transcribing of source materials while taking

notes.” --Lester, James. Writing Research Papers. 2nd

ed. (1976): 46-47.

http//:owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/research/r_paraphr.html


A possible paraphrase
A POSSIBLE PARAPHRASE: cited/quoted properly:

Students often rely too heavily on direct quotations in

their research papers when, in fact, roughly 90% of one’s

paper should be paraphrased. One suggested remedy is

to paraphrase while note-taking during research (Lester, 1976).

http//:owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/research/r_paraphr.html

A POSSIBLE SUMMARY:

Students should paraphrase as much as possible during

note-taking to avoid over-quoting in their research papers (Lester,

1976).

http//:owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/research/r_paraphr.html


WHERE SHOULD WE PLACE CITATIONS IN THE FOLLOWING PASSAGE? cited/quoted properly:

Since 1986, four children have been attacked in California. One of these attacks was serious enough to prompt officials to place Caspers Wilderness Park off-limits to children. “In July 1997 alone, two attacks on children, one fatal, occurred in different national parks in Colorado.”

Since 1986, four children have been attacked in California (“Mountain,” 2005). One of these attacks was serious enough to prompt officials to place Caspers Wilderness Park off-limit to children (Tran, 2001). “In July 1997 alone, two attacks on children, one fatal, occurred in different national parks in Colorado” (McPhee, 1998, p. 3).


Common concerns
Common Concerns cited/quoted properly:

  • My own language is not as impressive as the words of the author I’m citing. Shouldn’t I just quote the author?

    →Trust your own voice and paraphrase consistently throughout your paper. As you do so, your paraphrasing will improve. In addition, feel free to seek assistance from GSEP’s Writing Support Center.

  • My research paper is filled with citations. Isn’t over-citing a sign of bad scholarship?

    →As long as you’re paraphrasing, analyzing and discussing the material adequately, you needn’t worry about over-citing. In fact, consistent citing is a sign of responsible scholarship. However, be sure not to over-quote.


A final word
A FINAL WORD . . . cited/quoted properly:

When in doubt, cite the source; it’s always best to err on the side of being too careful rather than not being careful enough.


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