Order caudata salamanders
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Order Caudata (Salamanders). Fred Searcy ZOO2010. Order Caudata (L caudatus = tail). Salamanders & Newts 360 species worldwide Temperate, tropical, subtropical Endangered. Structure. Usually < 15cm Japanese giant salamander 1.5 m

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Order Caudata (Salamanders)

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Order caudata salamanders

Order Caudata(Salamanders)

Fred Searcy

ZOO2010


Order caudata l caudatus tail

Order Caudata(L caudatus = tail)

  • Salamanders & Newts

  • 360 species worldwide

  • Temperate, tropical, subtropical

  • Endangered


Structure

Structure

  • Usually < 15cm

  • Japanese giant salamander 1.5 m

  • Burrowing and aquatic forms may have rudimentary limbs or they may be missing

  • Terrestrial forms have limbs at right angles to the body


Nutrition

Nutrition

  • Carnivorous as larvae and adults

  • Protein rich

  • Fat & glycogen stored in small amounts

  • Most are opportunistic feeders but some actively search for prey

  • Teeth on upper and lower palate of mouth

  • Slow metabolism – less frequent eating required


Digestion

Digestion

  • Large stomach proportional to body

  • Cardiac and pyloric sphincter

  • Pancreas

  • Liver

  • Gall bladder


Cardiovascular

Cardiovascular

  • Blood contains

    • Erythrocytes

    • Leucocytes

    • Thrombocytes

  • Circulatory System

    • Vessels

    • 3-chambered heart

    • Lymph

    • Lymph vessels


Respiration

Respiration

  • Varied methods

    • Integument

    • External gills

    • Lungs

    • Both gills and lungs

    • Neither gills nor lungs (pull air across buccal vascular membranes of mouth)

  • Most have gills in larval stage

  • Some aquatic forms have no gills and must surface for air.


Urogenital system

Urogenital System

  • Paired kidneys on either side of dorsal aorta

  • Bowman’s capsules present

  • Urinary bladder

  • Ammonia converted to urea

  • Some species convert urea to uric acid


Auditory vocal functions

Auditory & Vocal Functions

  • No ear drums, no middle ear cavity

  • Inner ear modified for sound perception

  • Lateral lines in larval and aquatic species (water current and pressure changes)


Skin pigmentation glands

Skin, Pigmentation, Glands

  • Serous glands – may be toxic or noxious – some lethal

  • Concentrated behind head or in parotid gland (“warts”) on skin

  • Mucous glands

    • Keep skin moist

    • Prevent infections

    • Lubricate path through water

  • Chromatophores

    • Melanocytes

      • Cryptic coloration

      • Aposematic coloration (warning)

    • Iridophores

    • Xanthophores

    • Erythrophores


Thermoregulation and metabolism

Thermoregulation and Metabolism

  • Poikilothermic (ectothermic)

  • Behavioral regulation


Breeding behavior reproduction

Aquatic species secrete pheromone

Some terrestrial species rub chins

Internal fertilization with spermatophore typical but some external fertilziation

Eggs layed in strings with gelatinous layer

Larva with gills & tails

Oviparous, viviparous, ovoviviparous

Breeding Behavior & Reproduction


Metamophrosis paedomorphosis

Metamophrosis & Paedomorphosis

  • Some are aquatic throughout life and don’t undergo metamorphosis – they retain their gills as adults

  • Paedomorphism – adult retains some larval traits, e.g. gills

  • Necturus sexually mature in larval stage


Metamophrosis paedomorphosis1

Metamophrosis & Paedomorphosis

  • Ambystoma

    • Only change to adult under specific environmental conditions

      • E.g. pond dries up, change to adult

    • Larval form called axolotl

    • Can force metamorphosis by treating axolotl with thyroxine from thyroid gland


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