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The science of the innovation processes: an integrated and evolutionary discipline for the education of the XXI century’s Engineers. Dr. Laure MOREL, Professor Dr. Mauricio Camargo, Associate-Professor. Réseau Cartagène d’ingénierie-RCI 21 septembre 2010 Metz. INTRODUCTION.

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Dr laure morel professor dr mauricio camargo associate professor

The science of the innovation processes: an integrated and evolutionary discipline for the education of the XXI century’s Engineers

Dr. Laure MOREL, Professor

Dr. Mauricio Camargo, Associate-Professor

Réseau Cartagène d’ingénierie-RCI

21 septembre 2010 Metz


Dr laure morel professor dr mauricio camargo associate professor

INTRODUCTION

Increasing perception of complexity

- Environmental changes

- Difficulties in approaching industrial problems

- Management of Innovation have evolve due to :

- industry needs

- customers needs

  • « what innovation means ? »

  • impact on a training program of an Engineering school


Dr laure morel professor dr mauricio camargo associate professor

INTRODUCTION

  • Innovation is a fashionable concept :

  • * product : to better satisfy needs or to create new ones

  • * process or organisation : to reduce delay, cost

  • to improve quality and productivity

  • Different communities so different models and representations

  • * lack of understanding or a misunderstanding

  • * a huge amount of definition about “what innovation is “


Dr laure morel professor dr mauricio camargo associate professor

INTRODUCTION

  • For example :

  • one consider innovation as a “smooth, well-behaved linear process “ [Rosenberg & al, 86]

Idea

Development

Production

Marketing

From research activities

  • one consider innovation as a cognitive process based on new way of reasoning and acting in an individual or collective or organisational point of view

  • [March & Simon 74], [Callon 94], [Alter 95], [Boucher & al 95]


Dr laure morel professor dr mauricio camargo associate professor

INTRODUCTION

  • one consider innovation as a systemic process allowing adjustments between the industrial system and its environments

The chain-linked model [Kline & Rosenberg 86]


Dr laure morel professor dr mauricio camargo associate professor

INTRODUCTION

OBSERVATION : an agreement has emerged to consider

innovation as a process

Innovation and complexity are linked

New paradigms and new way of acting

are needed to face current industrial challenges


Dr laure morel professor dr mauricio camargo associate professor

To conceive its existence

Knowledge is a project continuously constructed

PARADIGMS EMERGING AND CHALLENGES

Paradigm of Complexity

Constructivist Paradigm

No permanent and only one explanation of the reality

To apprehend

To change our representations of

the reality and our way of acting

Knowledge emerges from the interaction between a system and its environment

To integrate

To create value by the quality of the interactions and by the search of a sense given to our action

To take advantage of

Innovation as a value -creating process

Scientific framework of an Integrated Approach to Innovation

Systemic logic

Learning and action logic


Dr laure morel professor dr mauricio camargo associate professor

Integration of various point of view and of the persons

Study of the links and the interactions

Knowledge is not given

To think in our practical

To develop particular model of action for each situation

Learning and action logic

Systemic logic

PARADIGMS EMERGING AND CHALLENGES

Paradigm of Complexity

Constructivist Paradigm

Innovation as a value -creating process

Scientific framework of an Integrated Approach to Innovation


Dr laure morel professor dr mauricio camargo associate professor

TOWARD AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO INNOVATION

technical dimension

organizational dimension

Control of the

Creation of value

(financial, culture,

apprenticeship, common sense…)

performance

behavioral dimension

cognitive dimension

Innovation as a process

Innovation as the search of a result

PARADOX


Dr laure morel professor dr mauricio camargo associate professor

THE IMPLICATION ON TRAINING IN AN ENGINEERING SCHOOL

  • Research

  • paradigms emergence

  • Customers

  • demand industry

  • Product

  • engineers

« How to do the link »


Dr laure morel professor dr mauricio camargo associate professor

THE IMPLICATION ON TRAINING IN AN ENGINEERING SCHOOL

  • 2 QUESTIONS :

  • - How do we train people in order to respond to the

  • industry need ?

  • - what kind of pedagogical methods must be develop to

  • approach complex reality ?

Postulate : to develop a cross cultural attitude


Dr laure morel professor dr mauricio camargo associate professor

THE IMPLICATION ON TRAINING IN AN ENGINEERING SCHOOL

  • 2 MAIN AXES :

  • - Facilitating access to reasoning where creativity and flexibility have pride of place

  • - Encouraging observation, common sense, curiosity , interest for the physical and social world and the willingness to experiment


Dr laure morel professor dr mauricio camargo associate professor

THE IMPLICATION ON TRAINING IN AN ENGINEERING SCHOOL

  • 3 PROPOSALS :

  • - a learning approach combining project and practical experience

  • - a multi episodic apprenticeship in order to favor the transfer of methodology and methods within the courses

  • - the setting up of managerial/entrepreneurial development and personal development supervision


Dr laure morel professor dr mauricio camargo associate professor

Self-learning of languages

Self-learning and educational information & communication technologies

Methodological support

Coaching

Communication

Controlling fear

Philosophy

Assessing Potential through Simulation

Industrial projects

Analysis of practices

Qualitative monitoring

Life of associations

Self-learning

Learning

through action

Engineering Sciences

Management Sciences

Human Sciences

Personal development

THE IMPLICATION ON TRAINING IN AN ENGINEERING SCHOOL

H1: The innovation dynamic is closely linked to the innovative behaviors developed by individuals (Schumpeter, 1965), (Morel, 1998) , (Diedhiou, 2003), (Bary, 2002), (Batjargal, 2007), (Schwartz & Malach-Pines, 2007).

H2: The innovation culture requires educational engineering which promotes "practical understanding «  (Schön, 1983), (Camargo & al, 2009)

Figure: Innovation training: Educational structure of the GSI Engineering school


Dr laure morel professor dr mauricio camargo associate professor

THE IMPLICATION ON TRAINING IN AN ENGINEERING SCHOOL

  • 3 REMARKS :

  • - our pedagogy is based upon an ever-increasing autonomy of the learners

  • - teachers gradually turn into an external resource and a help to turn intelligence of knowledge into intelligence of action

  • - our training should no longer give pride place to order and stability : instability is becoming the driving force of knowledge


Dr laure morel professor dr mauricio camargo associate professor

AN EXAMPLE

A SPECIFIC CONTEXT : THE COMPETITIVENESS CLUSTERS

On July 2005, the French government has decided to grant an official label and to support 66 competitiveness clusters.

These competitiveness clusters concern emerging technological sectors such as nanotechnologies, biotechnologies or microelectronics, but also the more traditional industrial sectors.

What exactly is a competitiveness cluster and what advantages ?

The aim of a competitiveness cluster is to concentrate at the same location, the talent incorporated within public and private research units, teaching facilities and the expertise of business enterprises, in order to establish working relationships which develop a cooperation environment and promote partnerships within innovative projects. Universities and enterprises are mobilized, within a public/private partnership to work on new projects.


Dr laure morel professor dr mauricio camargo associate professor

Lorraine - Materalia

« Innovative materials and

intelligent products »

A SPECIFIC CONTEXT : THE COMPETITIVENESS CLUSTERS

Transport, Biotechnology and Healthcare, IT, images and network, Bio-Agronomics, Chemicals


Dr laure morel professor dr mauricio camargo associate professor

TRANSFER AND INNOVATION WORKSHOPS – TIW

A SPECIFIC CONTEXT : THE COMPETITIVENESS CLUSTERS

There are 4 key elements for a successful regional cluster:

- a common development strategy

- strong partnerships between the various players

- concentration on highly marketable technologies

- international visibility


Dr laure morel professor dr mauricio camargo associate professor

THE SCIENTIFIC BACKGROUNG OF THE TIW PROJECT

The School/Enterprise platform project (Morel & Guidat, 2005)

Knowledge

I

nnovation

Management

Engineering

PRODUCT

and

Innovation

[email protected]

TECHNOLOGY

PLATFORM

INCUBATEUR

New product development tools box

Innovation and creativity tools box

8 months Engineers mission

SKILLS

TRANSFER

PROJE

CT

WORKSHOPS

TIW project

Learning and

Innovation


Dr laure morel professor dr mauricio camargo associate professor

0BJECTIVES OF THE TIW PROJECT

Improving Innovation By Developing Exchanges Between Universities,

SMEs, and the Region

Objectives of the TWI project: to assist SMEs in Lorraine in their innovation dynamic and to contribute to a “learning by doing” pedagogy.

To assist SMEs in Lorraine

The TIW are designed to gradually integrate SMEs in the knowledge economy by developing their practices of collaboration and networking in order to boost their NPD process.

A “learning by doing” pedagogy

A project of modernization or innovation in SMEs is a project that can be tackled in all its dimensions (technical, economical, managerial) on a time compatible with the teaching time (2 semesters) and the industrial constraints.

It requires a multidisciplinary and multi-actors confrontation. This favor a learning by doing attitude of the students. Furthermore, the multidisciplinary nature of these projects will be a great opportunity to mix skills becoming from different backgrounds: engineering, management and industry.


Dr laure morel professor dr mauricio camargo associate professor

SEMESTER 1 (September to January)

Vendredi am

Common courses MIPI workshops

Tous les étudiants (et industriels) concernés

par les Ateliers de Transfert Thématique

MIPI suivent ces formations

8 x Vendredi am :

3 x 4 h Pratique de Gestion de Projet

3 x 4 h Pratique de Gestion de l’Innovation

2 x 4 h Interventions Professionnelles

Gestion de Projet

School A

2

AP

School B

2

AP

AP1

AP

1

School C

AP

2

AP1

AP

3

School D

AP

3

IND X

IND

Y

3

AP

Vendredi pm

Atelier Projet 1 (AP1)

pour Industriel X

1 Atelier Projet Finalisé

= 1 sujet industriel + 1 Manager Industriel + 1 groupe d’étudiants (3 à 4 étudiants x 2 écoles) + 1 équipe de Managers Ecole (1 enseignant / chercheur par école)

Vendredi pm

Atelier Projet 2 (AP2)

sans Industriel (incubateur)

1 Atelier Incubateur Projet

= 1 secteur industriel + 1 groupe d’étudiants (3 à 4 étudiants x 2 écoles) + 1 équipe de Managers Ecole (1 enseignant / chercheur par école)

Vendredi pm

Atelier Projet 3 (AP3)

pour Industriel Y

Par Atelier Projet :

Organisation du projet, répartition des tâches, analyse de tendances multi-points de vue, recherche d’informations, … Réunions de travail entre acteurs d’une même école et/ou des différentes écoles concernées avec (ou sans) acteur industriel.

?

?

?

Un des vendredi après-midi (décembre) sera réservé à une présentation intermédiaire de l’avancement des travaux de chaque Atelier Projet.

THE TIW PROJECT STRUCTURE

Basics on management of innovative projects and Project Organization

Application of

the courses on

the problematic


Dr laure morel professor dr mauricio camargo associate professor

SEMESTRE 2 (January to June)

Vendredi am and pm

Ressources « fixes »

et « en réserve » d’Experts

(Enseignants, Chercheurs, Industriels, Institutionnels, …)

Atelier Projet

avec Industriel

School A

Atelier Projet

sans Industriel (incubateur)

School B

School C

School D

Industrial X

?

Industrial Y, …

?

Ressources

Technologiques

Evaluation : Report and oral presentation

THE TIW PROJECT STRUCTURE

Operational implementation of the project

Materalia cluster

5000 euros budget


Dr laure morel professor dr mauricio camargo associate professor

EXAMPLES OF TIW PROJECTS


Dr laure morel professor dr mauricio camargo associate professor

Results : 52 ideas

THE FOUR CONCEPTS

  • « SERICA Carbone »

  • Ecological charter

  • Ecological message PSA

  • « Emball’utile »

EXAMPLES OF TIW PROJECTS


Dr laure morel professor dr mauricio camargo associate professor

EXAMPLES OF TIW PROJECTS

  • Evolution of the current products

  • product design

  • Usability test

  • But also….

  • A Roadmaping of the technology strategy


Dr laure morel professor dr mauricio camargo associate professor

EXAMPLES OF TIW PROJECTS

Dechaume MoncharmonJulien

Dunand Nicolas

Guironnet de Massas Mélodie

Hay Amandine

Laporte Grégoire

Marin Edwige

Nibourel Adrien

Rousset Marc

turnover of 13 million €

125 employees

Manager: M.Moret


Dr laure morel professor dr mauricio camargo associate professor

EXAMPLES OF TIW PROJECTS


Dr laure morel professor dr mauricio camargo associate professor

CONCLUSION

  • The TIW project is a tool for igniting, accelerating and facilitating innovation through:

  • A better identification and formalization of an industrial problematic of technological development

  • A more efficient piloting of the project thanks to the access to competencies and tools that SMEs don’t basically get

  • Adapted training sessions for the SMEs employees or managers regarding their project

  • A progressive integration of the SMEs to the local scientific and technology environment regarding the project needs

  • A concrete use of all the methods favoring a collaborative work

  • A free access for the SMEs to the [email protected] platform and different kind of resources (training, researches, transfer)

In 2006, 3 PMEs and 2 schools was engaged in the TIW project. In 2009, it represents 20 PMEs and 12 schools.


Dr laure morel professor dr mauricio camargo associate professor

CONCLUSION

For the training of the XXI century’s Engineers we need an Integrated Approach to Innovation.

That’s mean for a pedagogical structure :

  • - an opening up toward a culture of relationships and interdisciplinary

  • - a new perception of complex environment : constraint to creation of value

  • - a double process of adaptation and of professional ability to improve autonomy


Dr laure morel professor dr mauricio camargo associate professor

CONCLUSION

“What’s important in engineering education? Making universities and engineering schools exciting, creative, adventurous, rigorous, demanding and empowering environments is more important than specifying curricular detail.”

Charles Vest

President, National Academy of Engineering USA


President Emeritus, MIT


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