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Animal Diversity. Campbell Biology 7 th ed., Ch. 32, 33 & 34. What is an Animal?. Eukaryote Multicellular Heterotroph Has intercellular junctions Has muscle and nerve cells for movement and impulse conduction. Symmetry Radial Have top and bottom but no sides Bilateral

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Animal Diversity

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Animal Diversity

Campbell Biology 7th ed.,

Ch. 32, 33 & 34

What is an Animal?

  • Eukaryote

  • Multicellular

  • Heterotroph

  • Has intercellular junctions

  • Has muscle and nerve cells for movement and impulse conduction



Have top and bottom but no sides


Have dorsal (superior) and ventral (inferior), anterior (front) and posterior (rear/back) sides

Can be divided into 2 equal halves

May exhibit cephalization (head)


Arise from germ (embryonic) layers ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm

Body Cavity/coelom

Body Plans

Phylum Porifera

Live in water

Asymmetric body form

Lack true tissues and organs

Stationary, hermaphrodites

Trap food as it passes through sponge body


Radial body symmetry

Gastrovascularcavity for digestion and material dispersion

Either a

Polyp (tubular body) with tentacles and mouth extending upward, or

Medusa (flattened body) with tentacles and mouth down

Tentacles contain a stinging chemical

Includes jellies, corals, hydra, anemones



  • Thin (flattened) bodies, bilateral symmetry

    • Gas exchange and waste elimination occurs by diffusion

  • Live in aquatic or damp terrestrial habitats

  • Size ranges from microscopic to 20 meters long

  • Most have a gastrovascular cavity

  • Some have light-sensitive eyespots

  • Many are pathogenic (internal and external)

  • Includes planarians, tapeworms


  • Have a 3-part body plan

    • Muscular foot usually used for movement

    • Visceral mass containing internal organs

    • Mantle draped over the visceral mass, and may secrete a shell

  • Includes snails, slugs, clams, mussels, scallops, squid, octopi, chambered nautiluses


Segmented wormsresemble a series of fused rings

  • Length ranges from 1 mm to 3 m

  • Includes earthworms, marine segmented worms, leeches

  • Several layers of muscle permit movement

  • Most have

    • Coelom

    • Closed circulatory system

    • Ventral nerve cord and a primitive brain

  • Have several sense organs, including eyes, cells sensitive to light and touch, some have antennae


  • 2/3 of known animal species are arthropods

  • Exist in almost every known habitat

  • Arthropods are segmented, coelomates with an exoskeleton and jointed appendages

  • They have well developed sense organs, including eyes, olfactory receptors, and antennae for touch and smell

  • They have open circulatory systems

  • Included are spiders, scorpions, insects, centipedes, crabs, lobsters


  • Named for their claw-like feeding appendages

  • Have 2 body segments, no antennae and usually simple eyes

  • Most are arachnids

    • Scorpions, spiders, ticks, mites

  • Have 4 pairs of legs

    • Spiders have poison glands in their chelicerae to assist in attacking prey

    • Spiders also construct silk webs


  • 3 body segments: head, thorax, abdomen

  • Many can fly, with 1 or 2 pair of wings

  • Have a nervous system ; many have antennae and compound eyes

  • Open circulatory system

  • Mouth is specialized for chewing, sucking, lapping or piercing

  • Many undergo incomplete or complete metamorphosis


  • Have branched appendages that are extensively specialized for feeding and locomotion

  • Include lobsters, crabs, crayfish, shrimp, barnacles and pillbugs

  • Most are aquatic






  • All are marine

  • Endoskeleton of limestone covered by a thin skin, bumps and spines

  • Have a water vascular system made of a central ring canal and radial canals running in grooves down each arm

    • branches into tube feet that function in movement, feeding, gas exchange, and sensory awareness

  • Include sea stars, sea urchins, sand dollars, sea cucumbers

Central disk


Digestive glands








Radial canal




  • Animals with a bony vertebral column and skull

    • Encloses spinal cord and brain

    • Most have a mineralized endoskeleton

    • Most have jaws & paired appendages

  • Have enhanced sensory organs


Sharks, Rays, and their relatives

Have a skeleton composed primarily of cartilage

Pelvic fins

Pectoral fins

Southern stingray (Dasyatis americana).

Blacktipreef shark (Carcharhinus melanopterus).



Sea horse


  • The vast majority of vertebrates are Osteichthyes

    • Nearly all have a bony endoskeleton

    • Most are fish

During metamorphosis, the gills and tail are resorbed, and walking legs develop.


  • Terrestrial (partly), have feet and ears

  • Class Amphibia includes primarily salamanders, frogs and toads

Wagler’s pit viper (Tropidolaemus wagleri), a snake


  • Includes lizards, snakes, turtles, crocodilians

  • Reptile scales create a waterproof barrier

  • Most breathe via lungs

  • Most lay shelled eggs on land


  • Adaptatedfor flight with wings and feathers

  • Considerable variation in foot and beak structure

  • Endothermic


  • Have hair and produce milk

  • Generally have a larger brain than other vertebrates of equivalent size

  • Monotremesare a small group of egg-laying mammals consisting of echidnas and the platypus

    • They are found only in Australia and New Guinea

  • Marsupials – mammals with a pouch – include opossums, kangaroos, and koalas

    • They are found only in Australia and North and South America

Placental Mammals (Eutherians)

  • Complete embryonic development within a uterus, joined to the mother by the placenta

  • Eutherian orders include

    • Elephants

    • Rodents

    • Carnivores

    • Cetaceans (whales, dolphins)

    • Horses & rhinos(odd # toes on hooves)

    • Sheep, pigs, cattle, deer(even # toes on hooves)

    • Bats

    • Primates

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