Using Commonsense Reasoning in Video Games
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Using Commonsense Reasoning in Video Games. The Dramatic Improvement in Video Game Realism. There is a problem facing the video game industry: 3D environments are getting dramatically more realistic , but they are not getting any easier for artists to create.

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The Dramatic Improvement in Video Game Realism

There is a problem facing the video game industry: 3D environments are getting dramatically more realistic, but they are not getting any easier for artists to create


The Dramatic Improvement in Video Game Realism - Hardware

(1998)

(2003)

In addition to looking more like jet engines, graphics cards are improving at an incredible pace


The Dramatic Improvement in Video Game Realism - Hardware

NVIDIA is working under the philosophy of "Moore's Law Cubed"


The Dramatic Improvement in Video Game Realism - Software

(1991)

(1994)

(1996)

DOOM by id

Quake by id

Wolfenstein 3D by id

(2004)

(1999)

Quake III by id

DOOM 3 by id


The Dramatic Improvement in Video Game Realism

The environments are more realistic (texture mapping, anti-aliasing, pixel and vertex shading, improved shadow generation, increased memory bandwidth, increased fill rate…)

And they are also more complicated


(lots of stuff)

The Dramatic Improvement in Video Game Realism – Complexity of Environments

Morrowind by Bethesda Softworks, PC and Xbox


Result: Increased Development Time

Morrowind took 3 years to develop in part because the massive game environment was generated by hand


The Complexity of Level Editors

Editors to create 3D environments represent some of the most complex software applications ever created


The Complexity of Level Editors: A Sea of Direct Manipulation

The Morrowind Construction Set


The Complexity of Level Editors Manipulation

Unfortunately, editors are not improving at a pace to compensate for the increased complexity of 3D environments


A CS100 Solution Manipulation

Some games automatically create their own environments, but the result is usually as simplistic as randomlygenerating a maze


A New Solution Manipulation

We are trying to use Common Sense Reasoning to automatically generate rich and immersive 3D environments


Rationale Manipulation

Rationale

  • Save development time and money

  • Create dynamic and “endless” worlds

  • Expand the capabilities of Common Sense Reasoning


Project Goals Manipulation

Project Goals

  • Automatically place objects in a 3D world.

  • Develop a set of common sense predicates that accurately describes object placement.


Human Computer Interaction Manipulation

(X,Y,Z)?

Um, I want a table with a vase on it

There is a disconnect between how people express object placement and how computers do. Common Sense knowledge will allow computers to render environments without requiring specific instructions for every action


System Architecture Manipulation

Natural Language Statements

Natural Language Statements

Knowledge about objects

Level Editor with Common Sense

XML file with RDF predicates about Objects

XML file with a list

of objects

Algorithms to convert predicates to XYZ coordinates

and intelligently place objects in a 3D world

(automatically generate)

Plug-in File

Render the environment in the Morrowind Engine


Common Sense Predicates Manipulation

Common Sense Predicates

  • Develop a set of predicates that can describe object placement.

  • E.g. On top of, Around, Beside, etc…

  • How people describe object locations:

    • “the chairs around the table”

    • “the vase on top of the table”


Common Sense Predicates Manipulation

Common Sense Predicates


Common Sense Predicates Manipulation

Dealing with Multiple Predicates

  • Vase goes on top of a table.

  • Vase goes in the center of a table.

  • Place the vase on top of and in the center of a table.


Common Sense Predicates Manipulation

Dealing with Fuzzy Predicates

  • What does “edge of” mean?

  • How close to the edge? It depends on the object

  • E.g. plates around edge of a table vs. frosting around edge of a cake

  • Requires more common sense about object properties, like don’t want plates to fall off.


Our Proof of Concept Manipulation

The system makes mistakes, this is true with all applications that use common sense reasoning

However, we have a working proof of concept


Example Scene Manipulation

These objects were automatically placed using Common Sense Reasoning


Future Work Manipulation

We are now exploring to what extent these algorithms can scale to more complicated environments



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