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Urban cultural policies and development of creative industries. Belgrade creative city perspective Milena Dragicevic Sesic. Cultural policy professionalization. Rutinization of cultural policies Sectorialization Focusing on institutions traditional approach If succesful:

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Urban cultural policies and development of creative industries

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Urban cultural policies and development of creative industries l.jpg

Urban cultural policies and development of creative industries

Belgrade creative city perspective

Milena Dragicevic Sesic

Cultural policy professionalization l.jpg

Cultural policy professionalization

  • Rutinization of cultural policies

  • Sectorialization

  • Focusing on institutions

  • traditional approach

    If succesful:

  • Orientation on quality achievements

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Cultural policy as part of strategic program

  • Orientation to market demands

  • Seeing a global pictures

  • Following trends

  • Initiating new concepts

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Evidence based cultural policy – possibility?

  • No tradition for evidence based cultural policy in the region

  • Relying on thoughts, big ideas

  • Despising the facts and “banal data”

  • Respect for the central guidance (in spite of self-governing system in ex-Yu)

  • Authoritarian and egalitarian values

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Stimulans for city policy making

  • Andre Malraux – top-down approach

  • Jack Lang – contracts with municipalities

  • British stimulans for strategic planning (New inspection regimes: Best Value, Comprehensive Performance Assessment)

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tasks of the city public policies

(re)defining city identity, based on:

- collective memories of people, - cultural heritage (built and intangible) and- vision of future

gathering consensus among:

- main political agents,

- public opinion makers (intellectuals, educators, media practitioners…).

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Cities in decline – cities in motion

  • Politics of oblivion

  • Politics of status quo

  • Politics of waiting

  • Active policies…

  • Secret cities of USSR – motor of military and nuclear development – non-existent in present day debate

  • Future of Akademgorodok?

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Palanka - cities

  • Substitute for industrialization – small commerc (kioskization)

  • Next step: Small and medium enterprises

  • Next step: Foreign investments

    Forgotten issues:

  • How to integrate lost memory in future development?

  • How to start endogenous development

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Policies of new “urbazone”

  • Hundreds of use of the word “urban” /in contemporary media, meaning:fashionable consumeristic oriented individual


    hedonistic orientation

    fun, entertainment

    branding as key issue…

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Shortcut to Creative Belgrade?

Key agents: ad agencies

Culture as Design – consumption pattern

  • Shopping

  • Eating

  • Socializing (coffee houses)

  • Beaches… (river and lake…)

  • Movies

  • Festivals…

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A shortcut to creative Amsterdam

  • Change as a constant (letter of the maire)

    Five stories:

  • Westergasfabriek – cultural park

  • Jenifer Tee

  • Viktor & Rolf

  • Zuidas

  • Breeding grounds

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Key words

  • I amsterdam – (un)expected

  • Inspiring storeys

  • Fashion, art, nightlife, design

  • Imagination rules

  • Creative crossroads

  • Creative diplomacy (lloyd hotel)

  • playground

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Creative industries of socialism period (1985 – 2000)

  • Enterpreneurial initiatives of Ljubisa Ristic:- Avala fest (re-use of Film city)

    - Sugar factory renewal (LED art intervention against Project X, 1996.)

    Barutana – renewed Kalemegdan powder storage + lagums of Belgrade as coffee bars

    Belgrade – Europolis …

    Sava amphitheater

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Belgrade five stories

From resistance to creative industries:

  • B92 (Radio-TV-video), REX, Samizdat

  • Center for Cultural Decontamination, Skart…

  • Publikum – FIA

  • Independent publishing houses: CLIO, Geopoetika, Rende…

  • Music production – from rock to Serbia sounds global

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Non commercial

- New moment review and art gallery

- Grifon prize for graphic design


- Pink television (City records…)- BK Television + BK sound- Komuna- Fashion week

Non-political initiatives

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Fashion - Design

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Creative industries of Belgrade







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Cultural policy – new initiatives

  • Business & Art award: O3one gallery – design & everyday life

  • Beton hala – Superspace gallery

  • Kunsthalle & Museums in old military barracks (City museum)

  • Old Fair – memory park or disco club

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Old fair – view from 30`

Fair – high prestige int. events -30`

Concentration camp 40`

Art ateliers – since 50` first Waiting for Godot in the Eastern World (59)

What to do now?

Memorial park?

Cultural-art center?

Club Poseydon? Club New Laguna?

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Urban policy initiatives

  • 60` Skadarlija (+ Kosancicev venac)

  • 70` Payton City - Cubura

  • 80` Knez Mihajlova

    90` - without policy initiatives

  • 6. - 13. May 2006 – Week of Architecture.

  • Fontana? Memory of cosmopolitan Belgrade of 60`City Center… Kunsthalle

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Privatization in culture

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Serbian creative industries

  • Film production – 179 comp. (157 active)

  • Music production companies – 46

  • Publishing companies – 517 active

  • Radio & Television – 139 Radio&TV stations (105 still in public ownership)

    - 543 radio stations- 73 Tv stations

  • Daily newspapers - 21

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Number of employed

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Research: survey of Belgrade CISAIT team: SlobodanCvejic, M.Dragicevic Sesic…

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Basic characteristics

  • 43% women and 57% men.

  • 34 years old in average, ranging from 15 to 77, but with majority concentrated between 20 and 35 (2/3).

  • 62% were born in Belgrade, 6% in other big cities of former Yugoslavia, 30% in middle size cities of nowdays or former Yugoslavia, and 2% were born abroad.

  • 41% completed university education, 29% completed third degree or is at graduate studies now, and 21% has spetialization degree. Only 9% has only secondary education,.

  • 60% of respondents does only CI job for living, 13% is basicaly relied upon CI job, but does something else as well (teaching or expert work outside CI), and 27% does something else for living and has CI as second choice of activity.

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Economic strength of CI in Belgrade

  • 84% make money out of their creative work.

  • Their market is highly localized: - 82% Belgrade, - 38% in big cities in Serbia, - 27% reach former Yugoslavia states, - 16% has market in Southern-Eastern Europe,- 25% in Europe - 13% globaly.

  • Average annual personal income made in the crafts was 276,000 CSD (4,600 USD).

    - 10% has no income, - 16% between 40,000 and 100,000 CSD (660 and 1,700 USD), - 19% between 120,000 and 200,000 CSD (2,000 and 3,300 USD), - 19% between 240,000 and 300,000 (4,000 and 5,000 USD), - 17% from 350,000 to 600,000.

    the household annual income, it is 690,000 CSD (11,500 USD) in average (household economic strategy of artists).

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Living conditions

39% of them live at their parents’, relatives’ or friends’.

38% posses an appartment

20% rent for the place they live in.

17% live alone,

26% live in 2 person household,

28% in 3 person household,

22% in 4 person household,

7% in 5 or more person household.

6% of the sample lives in studio space, 12% in no bedroom appartment,

36% in one bedroom apprtment,

29% in 2 bedroom appartment.

33% up to 50 sqm,

34% in 51-70 sqm,

25% in 71-100 sqm

8% in more than 100 sqm.

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CI organizations survey analysis

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Legal status of CI organizations

  • 64% of organizations/companies privately owned,

  • 31% were NGOs

  • 6% were state-owned companies.

    number of employees:

  • 54% has 0-3 permanently employed people

  • average for the sample is 11

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Working space

  • 8% don’t have separate working space

  • 57% rent their space

  • 13% of cases a member of the organization/company owns the space,

  • 15% of cases organization uses public space with minimal rent,

  • 8% of cases they have another solution.

    The costs related to the space vary from 0 to 4,800,000 dinars (0 to 80,000 USD) per month. Average is cca 165,000 CSD (cca 2,700 USD)

    The largest number of respondents is concentrated between 40,000 and 60,000 CSD (650-1,000 USD).

    Average size of the space used is 160 sqm, (two modal intervals):

  • between 30 and 50 sqm (20%)

  • between 70 and 110 sqm (25%).

    In average, satisfaction with the working space, measured on the scale 1-10, is at the middle (6).

    72% believe that their organization/company needs more space than they have now (of them).

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Small private firms (bookstores, galleries, etc.) and NGOs are oriented towardscultural/artistic market,

they want governmental assistance in approaching customers, resources and other organizations.

They need more information, training in skills needed in transition from protectionist to open market system

As for work space, their perception of their own position is not realistic: they want more space at lower rates by subsidized loans or rents.

This means that in reconstructing an old industrial site or constructing a new building for CI, huge assistance would be needed from local institutions and banks. To make the whole project sustainable, CI people should be incited towiden their market and trained to operate under more competitive conditions.

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