Tools for Representing and Appraising the Distributional Impacts of Policies
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Tools for Representing and Appraising the Distributional Impacts of Policies Example: Streetspace Allocation. Peter Jones & James Paskins Centre for Transport Studies, UCL. Leeds, 21 st May 2007. Current Situation.

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Tools for Representing and Appraising the Distributional Impacts of PoliciesExample: Streetspace Allocation

Peter Jones & James Paskins

Centre for Transport Studies, UCL

Leeds, 21st May 2007


Current situation l.jpg
Current Situation Impacts of Policies

  • Authorities encouraged to measure distributional impacts of strategies and schemes – but little guidance

  • Main advice relates to taking into account effects of income differences (e.g. equivalence scales, distributional weights)

  • Recent legislation in UK to ensure no discrimination, in terms of disability, age, ethnicity, gender – strengthens case for examining distributional impacts


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Distributional Dimensions Impacts of Policies

  • WHO: Social group distribution (‘vertical equity’):

    • Directly affected (e.g. children)

    • Indirectly affected (e.g. parents)

  • WHERE: Spatial distribution (‘horizontal equity’):

    • Design area

    • Wider impact area

  • WHEN: Temporal distribution:

    • Time period

    • Generational/cohort differences


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Requirements of Tools Impacts of Policies

  • Aid identification of relevant social groups, plus spatial and temporal impact areas

  • Identify relevant categories and measures of impacts

  • Provide basis for assessing gainers and losers, and severity/significance of change

  • Consider possibility of integration into current appraisal methodologies


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Types of Tool Development Impacts of Policies

  • Congestion charging: Bristol, Edinburgh (PROGRESS), WebTag guidance

  • Accessibility Planning: Barnsley Dearne, South Yorkshire

  • Streetspace reallocation: Bloxwich, West Midlands


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Streetspace Reallocation Impacts of Policies

  • Increasing emphasis on redesigning high streets:

    • Encourage more sustainable modes

    • Regenerate high streets & increase liveability

  • Given space/capacity limitations, more for one group often means less for others

  • Need a method of assessing design needs and gainers/losers under different options


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Option Generation & Appraisal Impacts of Policies


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Place status (A, B, C, D and E) Impacts of Policies

City

District

Neighbour

hood

National

Local

Link status (I, II, III, IV and V)

National

I-A

I-B

I-C

I-D

I-E

City

II-A

II-B

II-C

II-D

II-E

Arterial streets

District

Non-arterial streets

III-A

III-B

III-C

III-D

III-E

Neighbour

hood

IV-A

IV-B

IV-C

IV-D

IV-E

Local

V-A

V-B

V-C

V-D

V-E

Link/Place classification matrix

Source:

‘Link and Place - A Guide to Street Planning and Design’

Determine Street Type


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Street type Impacts of Policies

I - E

III - B

V - E

User group

Retail

ü

ü

Pedestrians

ü

ü

Pedestrians who have mob

ility difficulties

ü

Those using the street to socialise/relax

ü

ü

Cyclists

ü

Bus users visiting the street

ü

ü

Those travelling to other destinations

ü

ü

Car users (non

-

disabled) visiting the street

t

ü

ü

Disabled car users visiting the street

Select Street User Groups/Activities


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Requirement for Street Elements Impacts of Policies


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Minimum Design Requirements Impacts of Policies



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Blocks – Colour and Size Impacts of Policies

  • Use colour to denote different types of space usage

  • Some based on current street colour categories; e.g. blue = disabled parking (blue badge)

  • Size represents to scale space required to accommodate feature


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Scheme Comparison Impacts of Policies



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Appraisal Spreadsheet Impacts of Policies

  • Compares the impacts of various street designs on different user groups

  • Inputs include desired and actual levels of provision for each street element

  • Output is a comparison of the impacts for the various user groups

  • Following example replaces 6 parking bays with a bus stop


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User Impact Matrix Impacts of Policies

  • Matrix indicates relevance of different street features to different user groups

  • Impacts are only positive (1) or negative (-1); the matrix does not include any weighting


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The screenshot shows the spreadsheet being used to show the impacts of replacing 6 parking spaces with a bus stop

Provision and Impacts

Proposed plan elements are entered here

Current plan elements are entered here


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Provision and Impacts impacts of replacing 6 parking spaces with a bus stop

The impact matrix is used to calculate the impacts from the current provision and for the proposed plan


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Spreadsheet Output impacts of replacing 6 parking spaces with a bus stop

  • Comparison shows there will be a positive impact for bus users and negative impacts for car users (including disabled car users)

  • BUT this comparison did not take account of:

    • the relative importance of the user groups

      or

    • the ideal or maximum numbers of elements


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Adding User Group Weights impacts of replacing 6 parking spaces with a bus stop

  • The weightings in the matrix could be altered (e.g.) to favour plan options that:

    • Prioritise bus users

    • Prioritise disabled car users

    • Discourage car use by other groups


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Bus user weighting impacts of replacing 6 parking spaces with a bus stop

Car user weighting

Disabled user weighting

Revised Impact Matrix

  • The weightings are then fed into the impact matrix……….


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Street Element Weighting impacts of replacing 6 parking spaces with a bus stop

  • There may be an upper limit, or ideal number of a particular element

  • The spreadsheet currently allows a maximum provision point to be set; after this point, increasing provision does not increase the benefit for any group

  • It is possible to include other relationships, for instance diminishing returns


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Setting a Cut-Off Point impacts of replacing 6 parking spaces with a bus stop

  • In this example, the maximum number of parking spaces has been set at 6

Adding extra spaces does not increase the benefit


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Spreadsheet with Weightings impacts of replacing 6 parking spaces with a bus stop

  • The revised impact matrix now includes the following:

    A. User Group Priorities:

    • Priority for bus users

    • Priority for disabled drivers

    • De-prioritising car users

  • Cut-off point for parking spaces:

    • After 6 have been provided there is no benefit from additional provision


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The Effect of Weighting impacts of replacing 6 parking spaces with a bus stop

  • Unweighted matrix

  • Weighted matrix:


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Conclusions impacts of replacing 6 parking spaces with a bus stop

  • Spreadsheet currently under development, as an aid to option appraisal/selection – and to more targeted option generation

  • Encourages more explicit treatment of objectives, priorities and needs

  • More work required on inputs

  • BUT, as yet, does not take into account location of design elements along a street


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Shops impacts of replacing 6 parking spaces with a bus stop

4

Bus Stop

P

Value of Relative Location?


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Contact Details impacts of replacing 6 parking spaces with a bus stop

  • [email protected]

  • [email protected]


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