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  Electric Baseload: A Thousand Tiny Bites ACI NJ: Wednesday, Sept. 10, 2008 – 8:30 am – 10:00 am Atlantic City, NJ. Rana Belshe Conservation Connection Consulting Fairchild, Wisconsin 715-334-2707. A. Tamasin Sterner Pure Energy Lancaster, Pennsylvania 717-293-8990.

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  Electric Baseload: A Thousand Tiny BitesACI NJ: Wednesday, Sept. 10, 2008 – 8:30 am – 10:00 amAtlantic City, NJ

Rana Belshe

Conservation Connection Consulting

Fairchild, Wisconsin

715-334-2707

A. Tamasin Sterner

Pure Energy

Lancaster, Pennsylvania

717-293-8990



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Why Address Baseload?Electricity Use is Rising

Mark Fortney, 2007, PHRC, PA Home Energy Forum


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Refrigerators, water heating and lighting are key baseload issues. We’re not dealing with them in this session because…


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@ $.09/kWh

“NRDC Study of Set Top Box and Game Console Power Use”, Peter Ostendorp, Ecos Consulting, May 2007


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Plug Load Energy Use is Increasing

U.S. delivered residential energy consumption by end use,

2001, 2004, 2015, and 2030 (million Btu per household)

Source: Energy Information Administration 2006


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In This Session We Will

  • Define key terms

  • Examine the range of “typical” household electric use

  • Look at office and home electronic / entertainment end uses

  • Point to some helpful resources

  • Explore strategies to reduce residential electric baseload use


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Total Household Electric Use = Baseload + Seasonal

Baseload: Electricity used to power things used year round

Seasonal use: Electricity used to provide heating, cooling, often dehumidification

Source: 2005 Building Energy Data Book



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Plug Load Baseload Energy Use by Product Category

2007 Ecos Consulting, “Final Field Research Report”: Share of Plug Load Energy Use by Product Category27


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Whole New Language

  • Miscellaneous Electricity

  • Leaking electricity

  • Active power

  • Low power

  • Indeterminate Power

  • Sleep/hibernate

  • Power management

  • Standby

  • Phantom load

  • Vampire power

  • Power surge & suppression

  • Frequency regulation

  • Transient voltage

  • Internal Power Supplies

  • External Power Supplies

    • Transformers (AC to DC power)

    • Cubes

    • Wall warts

    • Power packs

    • Bricks


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Power vs Energy

Energy

utility bill – meter –

cost

Watt hour - Wh

kiloWatt hour - kWh\

Power

nameplate – peak –instantaneous

demand

  • Watt - W

  • kiloWatt - kW


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Power Supplies: A Growing Component

Function: convert wall voltage ac to low voltage dc needed to operate today’s digital chips, LED indicators, displays, etc.

6% to 10% of U.S. electricity flows through the nation’s 3.6 billion power supplies

  • Roughly 1 to 2% of U.S. electricity could be saved by improving power supply efficiency

    • $2.1 to 4.2 billion saved by consumers on their electricity bills

    • Prevent release of 40 to 80 million tons of CO2 into the atmosphere

    • Equivalent of taking 2.3 to 4.6 million cars off the road

    • Equivalent of building roughly 4.5 to 9 average sized power plants

2007 Ecos Consulting, “Final Field Research Report”


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Power Settings & Mode

“OFF”

ON

REALLY OFF

No power

Unplugged

Power switched off with strip or other control device

  • Active power

  • Low power mode

  • Indeterminate power

  • Sleep/hibernate

  • Standby power

  • Phantom load

  • Vampire power

  • Idle power

Anything with a remote, display, touchpad, or light is using power even when turned “off”


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Power: On vs Off: Ent. System # 1


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Energy: COST When On & Off

Based on watching TV 3 hrs/day


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Ave. Annual Use

Without DVRs 100-200 kWh

With DVRs 200-400

ec2007 Ecos Consulting, “Final Field Research Report”: Share of Plug Load Energy Use by Product Category27


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Entertainment System #2

  • Metered 118 Watts when turned “off”

Cost Calculation

118 W x 8760 hrs/yr x .001W/kW

= 1033 kWh

@ $0.14/kWh = $145/ yr


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Diagnostics: Getting & Using Power (W) & Energy (kWh) information Requires:

Deciphering the obvious

Tracking, reading, recording, calculating and metering


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Entertainment System #3

Home Theater use 150 Watts when “off” !

  • Plasma TV: 33 W

  • Amplifier: 19 W

  • TiVO: 29 W

  • HDTV DVR: 44 W

  • Audio Receiver: 5 W

  • UPS: 20 W

Danny Parker, FSEC, 2008


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PIER Annual kWh of TVs by Mode

  • Standby power is similar regardless of TV type or size.

  • Newer TVs use a lot more energy than older ones.

  • Larger and newer technologies (plasma & rear projection) tend to be used more and are frequently part of a larger entertainment set up.

Source: Ecos Consulting, “Final Field Research Report”, 2007


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1200 kWh for 2 TVs

Cost @ $.14/kWh

$168/year

ACI NW 2007; www.efficientproducts.org


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The amount of energy consumed by TV’s in the US each year is set to rise, the NRDC predicts. The growth will come from more TV’s in the home, greater TV viewing time, growing screen size and higher-resolution displays. NRDC

ACI HP Conf 2007; www.efficientproducts.org


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Game Console Power Use Consumption is set to rise, the NRDC predicts. The growth will come from more TV’s in the home, greater TV viewing time, growing screen size and higher-resolution displays. NRDC

NRDC Study of Set Top Box and Game Console Power Use, May 2007, Peter Ostendorp, Ecos Consulting


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So… is set to rise, the NRDC predicts. The growth will come from more TV’s in the home, greater TV viewing time, growing screen size and higher-resolution displays. NRDC

How much energy does a screen saver save?


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Computers is set to rise, the NRDC predicts. The growth will come from more TV’s in the home, greater TV viewing time, growing screen size and higher-resolution displays. NRDC

Average desktop PC system draws 140W

On average, an ENERGY STAR computer uses 70% less electricity than standard unit—but only if power management features are activated

Major efficiency gains in terms of internal power supplies; more coming

Monitor accounts for about one half the use

17” color monitor uses about 35% more energy than a 14” color monitor

Laser printers draw about one third of print power when on standby – 100W or so

DOE computer cost calculator

Check DOE & www.energystar.gov for great stuff on this.


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Desktop PC is set to rise, the NRDC predicts. The growth will come from more TV’s in the home, greater TV viewing time, growing screen size and higher-resolution displays. NRDCvs Laptop

Source: Ecos Consulting, “Final Field Research Report”, 2007


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Our PC World is set to rise, the NRDC predicts. The growth will come from more TV’s in the home, greater TV viewing time, growing screen size and higher-resolution displays. NRDC

  • Power modes vary

    • Active power

    • Low power - Sleep

    • Off - Standby

  • In 2000 nearly 4.2 million people worked from home. Up from 3.4 million in 1990, the number is climbing

  • Up to 60% of office personal computers are left on overnight


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Managing Computer Power Use is set to rise, the NRDC predicts. The growth will come from more TV’s in the home, greater TV viewing time, growing screen size and higher-resolution displays. NRDC

  • Learn about and Activate Power Management Functions http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=power_mgt.pr_power_management

  • Maximize sleep features with free software such as CO2 Saver from http://co2saver.snap.com/

  • Turn off monitor if not using for > 5-20 min. and both CPU and monitor if not using for > 30-60 min.

  • Use power strips for positive “off” and control of peripherals

  • Establish standards and provide staff training re: various power modes and shut down maneuvers


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PC & Peripheral Use is set to rise, the NRDC predicts. The growth will come from more TV’s in the home, greater TV viewing time, growing screen size and higher-resolution displays. NRDC

  • CPU running VISTA

    • Sleep: 4W standby

    • Shut Down: 2W standby

  • Printer: 3W standby

  • Monitor: 1W standby

  • UPS/Battery back up powerstrip: 8W standby

  • Active Power for all the above: 140W


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Other Office Equipment is set to rise, the NRDC predicts. The growth will come from more TV’s in the home, greater TV viewing time, growing screen size and higher-resolution displays. NRDC

Rarely metered. Except …

when dealing with mysterious high use.

For example:

15 year old fax machine used 483 watts for 3 seconds, every 10-12 seconds.

  • Fax

  • Printer

  • Copiers

  • All-in-one units

  • Scanners

  • Routers

  • Servers

  • Audio speakers

  • ipod & MP3 players

  • etc. etc.


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Battery Charging Systems; Power Supplies; External Power Adapters

  • More than 1 billion/yr shipped worldwide!

  • Examples from Danny’s garage:

  • DeWalt Drill, & flashlight: 4 W standby each, 34 Watt charging

  • LiHi Battery charger: 4 W standby

  • weed trimmer : 4W standby

Inefficient products and uncontrolled use represents colossal waste


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Power Supplies: A Growing Component Adapters

Function: convert wall voltage ac to low voltage dc needed to operate today’s digital chips, LED indicators, displays, etc.

6% to 10% of U.S. electricity flows through the nation’s 3.6 billion power supplies

  • Roughly 1 to 2% of U.S. electricity could be saved by improving power supply efficiency

    • $2.1 to 4.2 billion saved by consumers on their electricity bills

    • Prevent release of 40 to 80 million tons of CO2 into the atmosphere

    • Equivalent of taking 2.3 to 4.6 million cars off the road

    • Equivalent of building roughly 4.5 to 9 average sized power plants

2007 Ecos Consulting, “Final Field Research Report”


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Battery Types & Chargers Matter Adapters

Battery chargers with similar charging capacity use varying amounts of energy to charge & maintain the battery

2007 Ecos Consulting, “Final Field Research Report”


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Battery Charging Strategies Adapters

  • Chargers can draw 5 to 20 times more power than they can store so...

    • Unplug chargers once battery is charged

    • Use timer to control charge cycle

  • Choose equipment based on charging performance

  • Buy efficient chargers

  • Use rechargeable batteries

  • Use power strips to simplify disconnecting chargers


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Advanced Power Strip Options Adapters

http://www.p3international.com

http://wattstopper.com

http://www.smarthomeusa.com/Shop/Smart-Energy/Smart-Strip/


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Simple Payback for Power Strips Adapters

  • Using a standard power strip saved 0.5 kWh/day for entertainment system #1– about 183 kWh/yr

  • Using an Occupancy Sensor strip in home office w/ 25W standby saved about 0.3 kWh/day – about 109 kWh/yr

    Is this significant?

  • These two actions saved 292 kWh/yr

  • At $.14/kWh this equals about $40/yr

  • For a seven month payback!


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Power Strip Purchase Tips Adapters

Get surge protection and reduced energy use.

Specifications:

  • clamping voltage (how much electricity will trigger it) of at least 330

  • energy dissipation rating (how much electricity will cause it to fail) of at least 400 joules,

  • response time of 10 nanoseconds or less www.alliantenergy.com


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Standby Power & Low Energy Homes Adapters

  • The less energy a home uses, the bigger part of the total energy use standby power becomes

  • When electricity is site produced—PV, wind, etc.—reducing standby loads becomes even more important.

  • At 1-2 kWh/day (FSEC measured), standby power equals 20% of PV output for a 2 kW array!

Smaller load = Smaller system = Lower cost


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Plug Load Adaptersand Hardwired Standby Use in Orlando, FL Home

  • Compressor Crankcase Heater in AC: 40 W

  • Zone Dampers on Air Handler: 30 W

  • Home Intercom: 30 W

  • Cable Box: 20 W

  • Computer System: 20 W

  • Security System: 15 W

  • All these 10 W each:

    • Dryer touchpad

    • Garage door opener

    • Satellite system receiver

    • Older television

    • Network box (unused)

    • Two cell phone chargers

    • Two cordless phones

210 Watts of Standby Power1,840 kWh/Year! $258 @$.14

Danny Parker, FSEC, 2008


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Low W Standby Products Needed For New Construction! Adapters

  • Doorbells: 18W

  • Thermostat transformer: 4W

  • Security system: 15W

  • Smoke detectors/GFI: 0.4 -1.0W ea.

  • Garage door openers: 5W

  • Server/routers ?

Danny Parker, 2008 FSEC


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…And not Just Electronics Adapters

  • Airhandler fans on 24/7(@400-600W)

    500W x 24 hours x 365 days x .001kW/W = 4,380 kWh/yr @$.14 = $613 per year

  • Radon exhaust fans. EPA IAQ house standards require them in attached garages. (@80-125W)

    100W x 8760 hrs/yr x .001kW/W = 876 kWh/yr @ $.14 = $123 per year

Ceiling fans, too if on 24/7



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Coal-Fired Electricity Generation Adapters

Greenhouse Gases

GHG

Carbon Dioxide

Equivalency

CO2e

NOX

SOX

Mercury (Hg)

Particulates

Water

waste: ½ to 1 gallon per kWh

Photo: Rana Belshe


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EPA Power Profiler Adapters

http://www.epa.gov/cleanenergy/energy-and-you/how-clean.html

Search by zipcode; calculator answers the following questions based on feed stock, pollution control equipment, etc.

  • What is my fuel mix?

  • What are the emissions in my area?

  • What can I do to make a difference?

Following example Based on zip: 08638

Utility: PSE&G Public Service Electric & Gas


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PSE&G Electric Generation Adaptersby Fuel Mix (%)


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PSE&G Emissions: lbs / AdaptersMWh

~ 1.1 lbs CO2 / kWh


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Annual Energy & GHG Emissions of Four Homes Adapters

707 kWh/Mo

Based on: PSE&G: 1.1 # CO2/kWh emission profile Sept, 2008

WI REC Dairyland Power Coop: 1.86 #/kWh


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Carbon per Capita Pounds/Day Adapters

Austria 16

Canada 32

Ireland 18

Mexico 6

Mongolia 5

Netherlands 27

NZ 15

Nigeria 1

Norway 19

Senegal 1

Sweden 11

Venezuela 10

AK 114

AZ 18

CA 18

CO 26

DC 32

MA 22

MD 23

NY 18

OR 19

VA 27

VT 17

WI 31

http://www.eia.doe.gov/environment.html

World average: 7 lbs/day

Ave American: 33 lbs/day

Ave New Jersey:22 lbs/day


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Range of Annual Electric Use (kWh) Adapters

National averages trued up to PA utility program experience



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Impact of Rising Electricity Prices Adapters

Annual Cost @ $0.14/kWh & with 40% Rate Increase


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Energy Cost & Btu Value Adapters

Based on NJ costs & estimates Sept. 2008


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Strategies to Control Home Electronic Energy Use Adapters

  • Unplug stuff you don’t use

  • Manage control settings for maximum efficiency

  • Turn equipment off when not actively using

  • Minimize standby use with power strips, switched outlets, unplugging, etc.

  • Purchase less stuff

  • Buy the most efficient products possible


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Home Electronics Adapters

Battery Charging Systems

Cordless Phones

Combination Units

Digital-to-Analog Converter Boxes

DVD Products

External Power Adapters

Home Audio

Televisions

VCRs

Office Equipment

Computers

Power Management

Copiers and Fax Machines

Digital Duplicators

Notebook Computers / Tablet PCs

Mailing Machines

External Power Adapters

Monitors

Printers, Scanners, and All-in-Ones

Water Coolers

Buy ENERGY STAR !


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Always Useful Links Adapters

  • Your utility website

  • www.njcleanenergy.com

  • www.energystar.gov

  • www.energy.gov/

  • www.eia.doe.gov/

  • www.energy.ca.gov

  • www.epa.gov/


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Climate, Energy & Water Communication Resources Adapters

Spreadsheet with 270+ resources; many with comments

Available at www. PureEnergyAudits.com & www.AffordableComfort.org


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Resources Cited in Quiz Adapters

  • Climate, Energy, & Water Communication Resources, 2008at www.PureEnergyAudits.com (click on downloads) & www.affordablecomfort.org

  • “Final Field Research Report” (Plug Load), 2007, Suzanne Foster-Porter, et. al., prepared for California Energy Commission

  • “Home Office and Home Electronics” U.S. DOE – Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Savers, November 2006, “Home Office and Home Electronics” http://www1.eere.energy.gov/consumer/tips/home_office.html

  • Phantom Load www.ocf.berkeley.edu/~recycle/ssec/download/Phantom%20Load.pdf

  • “NRDC Study of Set Top Box and Game Console Power Use”, Peter Ostendorp, Ecos Consulting, May 2007

  • World Watch www.worldwatch.org/ww/mos

  • McNally, Misty, 2008, “5 Ways to Stop Standby Power Losses”, Natural Home Magazine, Jan-Feb: 24l

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

With special thanks to Danny Parker, For his work, care, data & photos.

Florida Solar Energy Center. www.fsec.ucf.edu


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Feedback Welcome! Adapters

A.Tamasin Sterner

717-293-8990

[email protected]

Rana Belshe

715-334-2707

[email protected]


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