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The Relationship of Video Game Play to Dreams and Other Related Consciousness Forms. Jayne Gackenbach Grant MacEwan College & Saybrook Graduate School Powerpoint presentation posted online at www.spiritwatch.ca. My Interest in Video Games. My son’s 20 th birthday party.

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The relationship of video game play to dreams and other related consciousness forms l.jpg

The Relationship of Video Game Play to Dreams and Other Related Consciousness Forms

Jayne Gackenbach

Grant MacEwan College

& Saybrook Graduate School

Powerpoint presentation posted online at www.spiritwatch.ca


My interest in video games l.jpg

My Interest in Video Games Related Consciousness Forms

My son’s 20th birthday party


Video games industry l.jpg
Video Games Industry Related Consciousness Forms

  • Larger than the movie industry


Slide4 l.jpg

63.5% Related Consciousness Forms

  • 8 to 14 year olds

    • 60+% played over an hour a day

    • largest playing group is mid-teens to mid-twenties

16%

Grant MacEwan College, Nov. 2004


Video game play downside l.jpg
Video Game Play Downside Related Consciousness Forms

BUT:

Self selection factors like personality

Situational factors like poverty

Distinction between fantasy and reality

Self reflection

Anderson & Dill (2000)


Video game play cognitive upside l.jpg
Video Game Related Consciousness FormsPlay Cognitive Upside

  • choice reaction time

  • spatial relations ability

  • spatial visualization

  • perceptual speed

  • scientific problem solving skills

  • intelligence

  • reason inductively and deductively

  • reason metacognitively

  • reflective decision making

    Hendersen, 2005


Technology and cognition l.jpg
Technology and Cognition Related Consciousness Forms

  • Broadly conceptualize technology

    • “building of artifacts or procedures — tools- to help people accomplish their goals”

  • Long influence on human development.

  • What’s commonplace to one generation were created through a great intellectual struggle by the previous generation.

  • Tool use is both amplifier of human action and transformative of human mind.

  • Video gaming

    • “Actively navigate through representational space”

    • To date media exposure has been largely a passive, observer experience

Sternberg and Preiss (2005). Intelligence and Technology: The Impact of Tools on the Nature and Development of Human Abilities


Video game play consciousness l.jpg
Video Game Play & Consciousness Related Consciousness Forms

  • Topics to be covered:

    • Attention

    • Presence

    • Psychological Absorption

    • Flow

    • Five Research Studies (1998-2006)

      • Dreams

      • Consciousness


Attention l.jpg
Attention Related Consciousness Forms

  • Attentional resources measured by Flanker compatibility task.

  • Participants were asked to decide whether a square or a diamond appeared within one of the six rings (target task)

  • Difference in target processing speed between compatible and incompatible trials. This difference, also called the ‘compatibility effect’

  • Measures the attentional resources available to the participant.

  • Video Game Players (VGPs) show compatibility effects at task difficulties for which attentional resources are usually exhausted in None Video Game Players (NVGPs)

    Green & Bavelier, 2003

Gamers


Attention improvements with training on video games l.jpg

the group trained on an action video game improved significantly more from

their pre-test scores than did the control group trained on a non-action video game

Attention Improvements with Training on Video Games


Presence l.jpg
Presence significantly more from

  • Story vs. No Story in first person shooters

  • When story present, game players felt greater identification, sense of presence, and physiological arousal.

    Schneider, Lang, Shin, & Bradley, 2004

Halo 2

This Spartan Life

In game real time interviews

Production staff has to lay down cover fire for host during interviews.


Psychological absorption l.jpg
Psychological Absorption significantly more from

  • Similar to presence

  • Capacity for absorption can be thought of as a capacity for total attentional involvement

  • Rapid absorption into games was rated as highly important by gamers (Wood, Griffiths, Chappell, and Davies, 2004)

  • Some subjects reported experiences during video game play indicative of altered states of consciousness (e.g., drifting, flying or changes in visual or auditory perception) (Glicksohn and Avnon, 1997)


Slide13 l.jpg
Flow significantly more from

  • Csikszentmihalyi (1988)

    • experience of optimal fulfillment and engagement

    • happiness

    • continual challenge to go beyond oneself as part of something greater than one's own self-interest

  • Positive relationship between video game play and the experience of flow (Voiskounsky, Mitina, and Avetisova, 2004; Chou and Ting, 2003; and Choi and Kim, 2004)


Slide14 l.jpg

Ermi & Mayra, 2005 significantly more from


Reality virtual and otherwise l.jpg
Reality: Virtual and Otherwise significantly more from

  • Waking reality is a mental construction

  • Virtual reality is a mediated construction

  • Dream and altered state realities are alternative constructions


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Video Game Incorporation into Sleep significantly more from

  • A-Percentage of reports collected before sleep onset (wake) and after sleep onset (sleep) that contained either images of Tetris (solid bars) or thought of Tetris without images (open bars).

  • B-Percentage of reports collected after sleep onset that contained either images of Tetris (solid circles) or thoughts of Tetris without images (open circles).

Stickgold, Malia, Maguire, Roddenberry, & O’Connor, 2000


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Video Games & Dreams Research significantly more from

  • Recognize fragments or characters from the video games in the material of children’s dreams & thus video games used in child therapy (Bertolini & Nissim, 2002)


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Summary of Hypothesis significantly more from

  • Understanding of our sense of self in the world is a construction of input variables while awake

  • Dreaming is another such construction with a somewhat different set of input variables than those experienced while awake.

  • Virtual reality (VR) offers yet another set of input variables similar to waking in that the person is awake yet similar to dreaming in that it is “not real” but constructed – but constructed in this case by technology

  • One of the areas where we see extensive practice in VR is video game playing

  • It may well be that practice in VR would translate into more accurate state recognition in dreams as well as control of dreams and other related experiences?


Consciousness tucson 1998 l.jpg
& Consciousness: Tucson 1998 significantly more from

  • Frequency of nightmares, night terrors, and mystical experiences, playing with others, playing fewer games, and nausea reactions seem to reflect a negative state

  • lucid dreaming frequency, plays days / week, length of play session, number of games, and nausea sensations seem to reflect a positive state

  • Based on 90 subjects

    Gackenbach & Preston, 1998


2004 in class data collection demographics l.jpg
2004 In Class Data Collection: Demographics significantly more from

  • 377 students at Grant MacEwan College

  • 15 groups of 10 to 40 from November 19th to the 26th of 2004

  • 119 were male and 234 were female, 24 did not indicate their gender

  • 88% were 19to 25 years of age

  • 97% were students in psychology or sociology classes

    Gackenbach, in press


Data collection method classroom performance system l.jpg
Data Collection Method: significantly more fromClassroom Performance System


Video game player groups l.jpg
Video Game Player Groups significantly more from

  • Identified by four video game questions

    • frequency of play

    • length of play

    • age begun play (younger start given higher score)

    • number of types of games played

  • Video game sum scores were split into three groups of players; high, medium and low/no history of video game play


Ancova on dream variables l.jpg
ANCOVA on Dream Variables significantly more from

  • Independent

    • Video Game Groups (low, medium, high)

  • Covariates (high video game players less)

    • motion sickness sum F(2, 312)= 4.895; p = .008

    • dream recall frequency F(2,327)= 2.977, p = .052

    • High video game players had less motion sickness and dream recall

      • Research shows that individuals who report more motion sickness symptoms in VR report less presence than those who report fewer symptoms (Witmer & Singer, 1998).


Control dreaming l.jpg
Control Dreaming significantly more from

3=

sometimes

2= rarely

F(4,299)=3.610, p=.007).


Lucid dreaming l.jpg
Lucid Dreaming significantly more from

3=

sometimes

2= rarely

F(4,299)=7.857, p<.0001


Observer dreams l.jpg
Observer Dreams significantly more from

3=

sometimes

2= rarely

F(4,299)=3.39, p=.010


Video game players quotes l.jpg
Video Game Players Quotes significantly more from

  • "I don't always remember my dreams when I wake up," … "When I do, though, they're extremely lucid."

  • "I've had lots of dreams where I've seen it in first and third person," … "It's like, 'Oh, wow, now I'm a player in Halo.' “

  • "You almost zone out," … "Your mind just goes on autopilot and you just become one with the system ... . Sometimes, you can't believe the moves you're making."

    McLean, 2005


Slide28 l.jpg

2004 Online Data Collection significantly more from

  • “Psychological Research on the Net”

  • 351 completed questionnaire

    • demographic information

    • video game habits

    • dream/sleep experiences

    • consciousness habits and experiences

    • Self-Transcendence subscale

Gackenbach, in press


Slide29 l.jpg

Dream ANCOVA’s significantly more from

  • Nonsignificant dream variables

    • lucid dreams

    • observer dreams

    • control dreams

    • archetypal dreams

    • REM paralysis

  • Marginally significant dream variables

    • nightmares, (F(5,245)=2.119, p=.064)

    • night terrors, (F(5,245)=1.907, p=.094)

    • high video game players had fewer than the other two groups.


Slide30 l.jpg

Ceiling Effect Confirmed significantly more from

video game groups = sum of z scores of frequency of play, length of play, age begun play, number of types of games


2005 new online data preliminary analysis l.jpg
2005 New Online Data significantly more from(preliminary analysis)

  • Independent variable = upper (frequent) and lower (infrequent) thirds of sum of video game variables (i.e., frequency play, length play, length last play, number games played, years playing) converted to z scores

  • DREAMS:

    • Covariates dream recall and motion sickness sum

    • Positive: (in general frequent more than infrequent)

      • Lucid (frequent>infrequent)

      • Observe (frequent>infrequent)

      • Control – ns

      • Video game (frequent>infrequent)

      • spiritual dreams – ns

    • Negative: (in general but marginal frequent LESS than infrequent)

      • nightmares – ns

      • night terrors – approaches (frequent < infrequent)

      • REM paralysis - ns

Gackenbach & Reiter, 2005


2006 gamer interviews n 30 l.jpg
2006 Gamer Interviews (n=30) significantly more from

  • Play video games on average several times a week

  • Typical playing session more than 2 hours

  • Been playing video games since before grade three

  • Played 50 or more video games over your lifetime

Gackenbach, 2006


2006 gamer interviews l.jpg
2006 Gamer Interviews significantly more from

  • Lucid Dreams - Common

    • Don’t find it remarkable

    • Don’t think to do anything with it when in the dream

  • Controlling Dreams - Never

    • Just their dream self

  • Observing Dreams - Common

    • Flip in and out of first and third person

    • Not the calm detachment of witnessing


2004 in class mystical items f 3 280 3 8 p 011 l.jpg
2004 In Class significantly more fromMystical ItemsF(3,280)=3.8, p=.011

Other Consciousness Variables

Absorption F(3,280)=.733, ns


2004 online data l.jpg
2004 Online Data significantly more from

20 selected items from Self-Transcendence subscale of the Temperment and Character Inventory

Motion sickness and meditation as covariates

No video game playing group differences


Absolute values of mystical absorption item subscales l.jpg
Absolute Values of Mystical & Absorption Item Subscales significantly more from

A------------------B------------------C------------------D------------------E

Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly

Disagree Agree

In class data

Absorption – no group differences

For online data absorption items significantly higher than mystical items

Moderate Video Game Players

Low Video Game Players

High Video Game Players


2005 preliminary flow during video game play l.jpg
2005 Preliminary Flow During Video Game Play significantly more from

  • Control for motion sickness sum

    • addiction – ns

    • salience – approaches (frequent>infrequent)

    • concentration – approached (frequent>infrequent)

    • playfulness – ns

    • time distortion (frequent>infrequent)

    • telepresence – ns

    • exploration (frequent>infrequent)

    • flow sum (includes addiction) – approaches (frequent>infrequent)

    • flow sum without addicition – approaches but stronger (frequent>infrequent)


2006 gamer interviews38 l.jpg
2006 Gamer Interviews significantly more from

  • Consciousness Experiences

    • Very high on absorption

      • Loss of time

      • Don’t realize anyone else there

    • Rare motion sickness

    • Identify with game character (most are role playing gamers)

    • Some still playing the game when leave the game environment


Slide39 l.jpg

1998 vs. 2004 Online Data Sets significantly more from


Hunt s separate paths of development of consciousness model l.jpg
Hunt’s Separate Paths of Development of Consciousness Model

Creativity

Hypnotizability

Mystical Experiences

Fantasy Proneness

Mental Illness (some forms)

Lucid Dreaming

Absorption or Openness to Experience

All correlate at lower levels but then break out as separate skills, experiences or states of being at higher levels

Hunt (2005)


Slide41 l.jpg

Mystical Experiences Model

Witnessing Dreaming

Lucid Dreaming

Fantasy Proneness

Absorption or Openness to Experience

Creativity

Hypnotizability

Mental Illness (some forms)

Hierarchical Model


With either model l.jpg
With either model Model

Technologies that facilitate movement out of the correlational bundle or up (down?) the pyramid:

  • dream recall/valuing

  • meditation

  • self awareness

  • various focused activities including

    • video game play


Bottom line l.jpg
Bottom Line Model

Kids

Breath

This

Stuff!

Presentation at www.spiritwatch.ca


References l.jpg
References Model

Anderson, Craig A.; Dill, Karen E. (2000). Video games and aggressive thoughts, feelings, and behavior in the laboratory and in life. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 78(4), 772-790.

Bertolini, Roberto; Nissim, Simona; (2002). Video games and children's imagination. Journal of Child Psychotherapy, 28(3), 305-325.

Choi, D. & Kim, J. (2004). Why people continue to play online games: In search of critical design factors to increase customer loyalty to online contents. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 7(1), 11-24.

Chou, T.J. & Ting, C.C. (2003). The role of flow experience in cyber-game addiction. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 6(6), 663-675.

Csikszentmihalyi, M. & Csikszentmihalyi, I. (Eds.) (1988). Optimal experience: Studies of Flow in Consciousness. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Ermi, L. & Mayra, F. (2005, June). Fundamental components of the gameplay experience: Analysing immersion. Paper presented at the biannual conference of the Digital Game Researcher Association, Vancouver, BC.

Gackenbach, J.I. (in press). Video game play and lucid dreams: implications for the development of consciousness. Dreaming.

Gackenbach, J.I. (2006). Unpublished data.

Gackenbach, J.I. & Preston, J. (1998, April). Video Game Play and the Development of Consciousness. Poster presented at the third biannual meeting of the Science of Consciousness, University of Arizona, Arizona.

Gackenbach, J.I. & Reiter, S. (2005) unpublished data.

Glicksohn, Joseph & Avnon, Michal (1997-98). Explorations in virtual reality: Absorption, cognition and altered state of consciousness. Imagination, Cognition, and Personality, 17(2), 141-151.

-849.

Green, C.S. & Baveller, D. (2003). Action video game modifies visual selective attention. Nature, 423, 534-537.

Henderson , Lyn (2005). Video games: A significant cognitive artifact of contemporary youth culture. Paper presented at the biannual meeting of Digital Game Researcher Association, Vancouver, BC, June, 2005.

Hunt, H. (2005, August). Personal communication.

McLean, Archie (2005, Feb. 12). Sweet dreams for gamers: Video games prompt more lucid dreams, says Grant MacEwan prof. Edmonton Journal, Retrieved Feb 12, 2005 from http://www.canada.com/edmonton/edmontonjournal/news/culture/story.html?id=9d1c053b-16e5-4f1e-ad7c-f893509c952c.

Schneider, E., Lang, A., Shin, M. & Bradley, S. (2004). Death with a story how story impacts emotional, motivational, and physiological responses to first-person shooter video games. Human Communication Research, 30(3), 361-375.

Sternberg, R.J. & Preiss, D.D. (2005). Intelligence and Technology: The Impact of Tools on the Nature and Development of Human Abilities. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Stickgold R, Malia A, Maguire D, Roddenberry D, O'Connor M. (2000). Replaying the game: Hypnagogic images in normals and amnesics. Science, 290(5490), 350-353.

Voiskounsky, A.E., Mitina, O. V. & Avetisova, A. A. (2004). Playing online games: Flow experience. PsychNology Journal, 2(3), 259 - 281

Witmer, M. & Singer, B. (1998). Measuring presence in virtual environments: a presence questionnaire. Presence, 7(3), 225-240.

Wood, R.T.A., Griffiths, M.D., Chappell, D., & Davies, M.N.O. (2004). The structural characteristics of video games: A psycho-structural analysis. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 7(1), 1-10.


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