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Response to Intervention: Using Data to Enhance Outcomes for all Students. Amanda VanDerHeyden Education Research and Consulting, Inc. Objectives Today. Overview of RTI, RTI decision making, and expected outcomes Specific How-To for RTI

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Response to intervention using data to enhance outcomes for all students l.jpg

Response to Intervention: Using Data to Enhance Outcomes for all Students

Amanda VanDerHeyden

Education Research and Consulting, Inc.


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Objectives Today

  • Overview of RTI, RTI decision making, and expected outcomes

  • Specific How-To for RTI

    • Interpreting Assessment Data to determine need for Tiers 1, 2, and 3 Interventions

    • Selection and implementation of Tier 2 Interventions

    • Selection and implementation of Tier 3 Interventions

  • Implementing intervention for sustenance and system change


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16 x 3 = 48 hours


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What is RTI?

  • A science of decision making and way of thinking about how educational resources can be allocated (or reallocated) to best help all children learn

  • Major premium on child outcomes


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RTI is Not

  • A program, a curriculum, an intervention, a particular model


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Data allow us to

  • Provide faster, more effective services for ALL children

  • Work “smarter” not harder, better utilize the talents of the school psychologist and school-based assessment and intervention teams.

  • Make implementation SIMPLE and EASY for teachers (low cost, few errors)

  • Prevent diagnosis


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5.2

2.5

Early Screening Identifies Children At Risk of Reading Difficulty

J

5

4

Low Risk on Early Screening

Reading grade level

3

2

At Risk on Early Screening

1

1 2 3 4

Grade level corresponding to age

This Slide from Reading First Experts

From Reading First


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With substantial instructional intervention

4.9

With research-based core but without extra instructional intervention

3.2

Intervention

Control

Early Intervention Changes Reading Outcomes

J

5.2

5

4

Low Risk on Early Screening

Reading grade level

3

2.5

2

At Risk on Early Screening

1

1 2 3 4

Grade level corresponding to age

This Slide from Reading First Experts

From Reading First


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Evolution

  • “Wait to Fail”

    • Let’s provide services early!

  • Costly sp ed programs not improving learning

    • Let’s shift resources to provide services in less restrictive setting!

  • Increasing numbers of children struggling in general ed

    • Let’s provide help in general education!

  • Traditional measures are de-contextualized and the constructs are problematic

    • Let’s help children who struggle academically by measuring performance in response to certain intervention strategies and then deliver what works!


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Rationale for System Change

  • Level and Rate of Performance

  • Return to General Education

  • Lack of Certified Teachers

  • No demonstrated instructional techniques that differentially benefit SLD

  • Drop-out

  • Disproportionate Representation by Ethnicity

200-300% increase in SLD


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History of RTI

  • Effective Instruction Lit, CBA/M Lit

  • Lab-Quality Intervention Programs

  • Progress Monitoring Data and Problem-Solving Models

  • Reading First data


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Consistent with

  • NCLB

  • Reauthorized IDEA

  • Recommendations of panel reports on: Minority students in special education, National Reading Panel, Science and Math Initiative


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Impetus

  • Faster, more effective services for ALL children

  • Work “smarter” not harder, better utilize the talents of the school psychologist and school-based assessment and intervention teams.

  • Make implementation SIMPLE and EASY for teachers (low cost, few errors)


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Why RTI?

  • Viable alternative to traditional diagnosis of high-incidence disabilities, particularly Learning Disability (LD)

  • Reauthorized IDEA guidelines for identifying LD state that:

    a) A severe discrepancy between achievement and intellectual ability shall not be required

    b) A response to intervention (RTI) may be considered


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Why RTI?

  • RTI can address the problem of disproportionate identification of children with LD by race and gender

  • The utility of curriculum-based measures (CBM) for:

    • Identifying children not likely to benefit from the general education curriculum without assistance,

    • Predicting important long-term outcomes

    • Tracking individual student growth and informing instructional programming changes has been established


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Considerations

  • There has been some consensus concerning the need for change; however, there has not been consensus on how this change can best be achieved.

  • Whereas RTI has considerable promise as a tool within special and general education, it is a vulnerable construct if misapplied.


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Improved Treatment Validity

  • Direct link to treatment or consequential validity

  • Efforts are focused to:

    • Properly articulate a concern

    • Develop targeted intervention to resolve the concern

    • Collect information to determine whether or not the concern has been adequately addressed or whether different solution efforts need to be implemented

  • This approach changes the goal of assessment from what some have described as “admiration” of the problem to problem-solving.


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Contextualized Decision Making

  • RTI emphasizes the pre-referral conditions (child and environment) and this context becomes part of the decision-making equation.

  • Allows practitioners to quantify:

    • The state of instructional affairs in the child’s regular education environment

    • Potential learning given optimal instructional conditions

  • RTI may enable improvement in general education programming leading to children receiving assistance in a more efficient manner.


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Improved Identification Accuracy for LD

  • Under RTI models intervention becomes a specified, operationalized variable, thus false positive identification errors should be reduced dramatically.

  • Removing the current reliance on teacher identification and requiring direct measures of child performance in context will enhance identification accuracy.


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More Effective Intervention

  • RTI is likely to facilitate less restrictive interventions and placements for children.

  • RTI allows school psychologists to bring their expertise to bear on assessment strategies at the classroom level and assist teachers to use data formatively to enhance their instructional programming.


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Possible Challenges of RTI


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Decision-making Criteria

  • Must be operationalized and validated through research

  • The purpose of RTI will be critical to determining how implementation should proceed


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New Challenges for Teams

  • Effective intervention delivery will depend on relevant intervention variables

  • To be effective the intervention must have been:

    • Properly identified

    • Implemented with integrity and with sufficient frequency, intensity, and duration


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STEEP Model

Screening to Enhance Educational Progress


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Tier 1: Math Screening

  • Math Probe:

    • Group administered.

    • Materials: Worksheet consisting of a series of problems sampling the target skill(s) (e.g., sums to 5, double digit multiplication with regrouping).

    • Timing: 2 minutes

    • Information obtained: digits correct in two minutes.


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Math Probe Example

  • Total Digits: 38

  • Errors: 5

  • Digits Correct: 33


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Tier 1: Writing Screening

  • Writing Probe:

    • Group administered.

    • Materials: story starter (e.g., If I had a million dollars…) printed at the top of a blank page.

    • Timing: 1 minute to think, 3 minutes to write.

    • Scoring: words written or correct word sequences in three minutes.


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Writing Example


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Tier 1: Reading Screening

  • Reading Probe:

    • Individually administered

    • Materials: A content-controlled reading passage.

    • Procedure: The student reads aloud as the teacher listens and records errors.

    • Timing: 1 minute

    • Information obtained: words read correctly in one minute.


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CBM Reading: Sample Scoring

  • TRW=63

  • Errors=6

  • CRW=58


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Class-wide Screening


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Feedback to Teachers


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Tier 2: Class-wide Intervention


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No Class-wide Problem Detected


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Tier 2: Can’t Do/Won’t Do Assessment

  • “Can’t Do/Won’t Do”

  • Individually-administered

  • Materials

    • Academic material that student performed poorly during class assessment.

    • Treasure chest: plastic box filled with tangible items.

3-7 minutes per child


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Can’t Do/Won’t Do Assessment


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Decision Rule Following Can’t Do/Won’t Do Assessment


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Tier 3: Individual Intervention


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Response to Intervention

Before Intervention

During Intervention

#Correct

Avg. for his Class

Each Dot is one Day of Intervention

Intervention Sessions

Intervention in Reading


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Response to Intervention

Before Intervention

During Intervention

#Correct

Avg. for his Class


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Vehicle for System Change:System-wide Math Problem

Instructional range

Frustrational range

Each bar is a student’s performance


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Re-screening Indicates No Systemic Problem

Fourth Grade


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Rest of Grade at Standard

Classroom

A

B

C

D

E

F


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Spring 2003– Classroom F

F


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Teacher moved to lower grade in Fall 2003


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Class-wide Intervention

Teacher F Mult 0-12

120

100

80

Digits Correct Two Minutes

60

40

20

0

11/7/2003

10/24/2003

10/31/2003

11/14/2003

11/18/2003

Weeks


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Increased Difficulty- Intervention Continues


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Mixed Mult/Div/Fractions Probe Classroom F


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Growth Obtained

actual growth

aimline


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Effect on High-Stakes Scores

VanDerHeyden, in prep


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Effect on High-Stakes Scores

VanDerHeyden, in prep


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District-wide Implementation Data

  • Vail Unified School District

    • www.vail.k12.az.us

  • Three years, system-wide implementation of STEEP grades 1-8


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System Outcomes

  • Referrals reduced greater than half

  • % who qualify from 50% stable baseline over three years to nearly 100%

  • SLD down from 6% of children in district in 2001-2002 (with baseline upward trend) to 3.5% in 2003-2004 school year

  • Corresponding gains on high-stakes tests (VanDerHeyden & Burns, 2005)

  • Intervention successful for about 95 to 98% of children screened

VanDerHeyden, Witt, & Gilbertson, 2007


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Cost Reduction

VanDerHeyden, Witt, & Gilbertson, 2007


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Findings

  • Number of Evaluations dramatically reduced– 70% at highest referral school

  • Diverse settings, psychologists of diverse backgrounds and no prior experience with CBM or functional academic assessment

  • Percentage qualify increased at 4 of 5 schools

  • Disproportionate representation of males positively affected

  • Number of children placed dramatically reduced

VanDerHeyden, Witt, & Gilbertson, 2007


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Team Decision-Making Agreement

VanDerHeyden, Witt, & Gilbertson, 2007


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Team Decision-Making

VanDerHeyden, Witt, & Gilbertson, 2007


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Fall to Spring Reading Growth

VanDerHeyden & Witt, 2005


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What Proportion of Ethnicity Represented Before and After Intervention in Risk Category?

VanDerHeyden & Witt, 2005


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Criterion +

Criterion -

PVS +

PVS -

.76/.11=6.9: children with learning problem about 7 times more likely to have a failed RTI than children without a learning problem

.24/.89=.27: children without a learning problem are 3.7 times more likely to have a successful RTI than those children with a learning problem

Sens- .76

Spec- .89

PPP- .59

NPP- .95

+ LR- sens/(1-spec)

- LR- (1-sens)/spec


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Criterion +

Criterion -

Probe +

Probe -

.94/.46=2.0: children with learning problem about 2 times more likely to perform below screening benchmark than children without a learning problem

.06/.54=.11: children without a learning problem are 9 times more likely to have a above criterion screening score than those children with a learning problem

Sens- .94

Spec- .54

PPP- .29

NPP- .98


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Identification Accuracy

  • High-achieving classrooms (<20%)

    • Procedures paired with RTI criterion were more accurate than other commonly used screening devices

  • Low-achieving classrooms (>50%)

    • Procedures paired with RTI criterion were more accurate than other commonly used screening devices

VanDerHeyden & Witt, 2005


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Questions

  • Is there a classwide problem?

  • Is there a gradewide problem?

  • What’s the most efficient way to deliver intervention?


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Screening tells you

  • How is the core instruction working?

  • What problems might exist that could be addressed?

  • Most bang-for-the-buck activity

  • Next most high-yield activity is classwide intervention at Tier 2.


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Screening Guidelines

  • Efforts at Tier 1 pay off with fewer children needing individual intervention

  • 3 times per year, single probe

  • Use small team of trained coaches

  • Prepare all needed materials in a packet for each teacher

  • Score and return within 1 week on graph

  • Use data to generate aimlines, can be used to set benchmarks


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Here is 3rd grade at Cottonwood. Each circle corresponds to a students score on a reading CBM probe in March and the AIMS reading score the same month. So the circle near the blue lines is a child who read 158 wc/min and scored 486 on the AIMS Reading. The diagonal line represents the “best fit” line or the line closest to all the circles. This shows there is a strong positive correlation between CBM and AIMS reading scores with this group.


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How to Set a Benchmark

This is words read correctly per minute. You move this line up and down to “catch” as many of those who will not pass as possible.

431 = “pass” for AIMS. This line does not move


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Setting 95 wc/min as the “pass” standard for CBM

These are children who were predicted to pass AIMS based on CBM and did pass. “Hits”

These are the children predicted to pass AIMS who actually failed. “False Negative Errors.” The worst kind of error.

These are the children predicted to fail AIMS who actually passed. “False Positive Errors.”

These are the children who were predicted to fail AIMS based on CBM who did fail. “Hits”


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Moving the horizontal line up will “catch” two more cases who failed the AIMS, but will result in many more “false positive errors.”

Thus, 95 wc/min at 3rd grade at Cottonwood is a good standard that will tell you which children are likely to fail the AIMS reading section.


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ROC printout


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Mastery Model Measurement (CBA)

Letter naming fluency

Isolated sound fluency

Beginning sound fluency

Ending sound fluency


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General Outcome Measurement (CBM)

Beginning sound fluency

Letter naming fluency

Isolated sound fluency

Ending sound fluency

Words read correctly per minute


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Tracking Year-Long Growth

mastery

aimline

instructional


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Pass the AIMS

Digits Correct Two Minutes

1

12

Weeks


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Academic Systems

Behavioral Systems

  • Intensive, Individual Interventions

  • Individual Students

  • Assessment-based

  • High Intensity

  • Of longer duration

  • Intensive, Individual Interventions

  • Individual Students

  • Assessment-based

  • Intense, durable procedures

  • Targeted Group Interventions

  • Some students (at-risk)

  • High efficiency

  • Rapid response

  • Targeted Group Interventions

  • Some students (at-risk)

  • High efficiency

  • Rapid response

  • Universal Interventions

  • All students

  • Preventive, proactive

  • Universal Interventions

  • All settings, all students

  • Preventive, proactive

Any

Curriculum

Area

1-5%

1-5%

5-10%

5-10%

Students

80-90%

80-90%

Dave Tilly, 2005


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“Weighing a cow doesn’t make it fatter.”


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Academic Systems

Behavioral Systems

  • Intensive, Individual Interventions

  • Individual Students

  • Assessment-based

  • High Intensity

  • Of longer duration

  • Intensive, Individual Interventions

  • Individual Students

  • Assessment-based

  • Intense, durable procedures

  • Targeted Group Interventions

  • Some students (at-risk)

  • High efficiency

  • Rapid response

  • Targeted Group Interventions

  • Some students (at-risk)

  • High efficiency

  • Rapid response

  • Universal Interventions

  • All students

  • Preventive, proactive

  • Universal Interventions

  • All settings, all students

  • Preventive, proactive

Any

Curriculum

Area

1-5%

1-5%

5-10%

5-10%

Students

80-90%

80-90%

Dave Tilly, 2005


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Class-wide Intervention

  • Use pair-peered practice (classwide peer tutoring, PALS)

  • Model, Guided Practice, Independent timed practice with delayed error correction, reward contingency


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Instructional Hierarchy

Finally, problem-solving/ application practice should occur here with a mastery level skill– Core Instruction- Not Manipulated but could be

But fluency building should happen here with an instructional level skill– Intervention Focus was here

To gain the steepest growth, introduction of new skills should happen here– Core Instruction- Not manipulated

Generalization

Fluency

Acquisition


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Reading classwide intervention


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Select a Few Good Interventions to Keep it Simple


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Intervention Plan- 15 Min per Day

  • Protocol-based classwide peer tutoring, randomized integrity checks by direct observation

  • Model, Guide Practice, Independent Timed Practice with delayed error correction

  • Group performance contingency

  • Teachers encouraged to

    • Scan papers for high error rates

    • Do 5-min re-teach for those with high-error rates

    • Provide applied practice using mastery-level computational skill


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Sample Sequence


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Intervention Plan

  • Class Median reaches mastery range for skill, next skill is introduced

  • Following promising results at one site in 2002-2003, lead to implementation district-wide grades 1-8 for all children by 2004-2005.


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Class-wide Math Intervention


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With teacher support

  • Consider time, resources, materials

  • Remove skill barriers with

    • classroom training for students

    • classroom coaching for teachers

  • Remove implementation barriers after use new steps

    • follow-up supportive meetings to problem solve.

    • frequent acknowledgment of a teacher’s efforts


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Training Package

Tell

Rational

Step by step protocol

Show

Model

Do

Train students

Implement with guided practice

Implement independently with support


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88% of interventions are not used

without support

Decisions do not always correspond to data (someone must check)


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Tier 2 Intervention Effects


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Class 1 at Screening


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Class 1: Following 10 Days Intervention


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Class 1: Following 15 Days Intervention


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Class 2 at Screening


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Class 2: Following 5 Days Intervention


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Class 2: Following 10 days Intervention


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Class 3 at Screening


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Class 3: Following 5 days Intervention


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Following 10 Days Intervention


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Tier 1 Screening Indicates Class-wide Problem


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Tier 2: Class-wide Intervention

Teacher F Mult 0-12

120

100

80

Digits Correct Two Minutes

60

40

20

0

11/7/2003

10/24/2003

10/31/2003

11/14/2003

11/18/2003

Weeks


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Increased Difficulty- Intervention Continues


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Contextually-Relevant Comparisons and Use of Trend Data


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5th Grade Math Intervention


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Pre-post changes to performance detected by CBM

Instructional range

Frustrational range

Each bar is a student’s performance


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Fourth Grade


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Effect on SAT-9 Performance


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Effect on CBM Scores


Slide112 l.jpg

Computation Gains Generalized to High Stakes TestImprovements (Gains within Multiple Baselineshown as pre-post data)


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Gains within Multiple Baseline (shown as pre-post data)


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Identification Accuracy

VanDerHeyden, et al., 2003


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Percent Identified at each Tier

VanDerHeyden, et al., 2003


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Academic Systems

Behavioral Systems

  • Intensive, Individual Interventions

  • Individual Students

  • Assessment-based

  • High Intensity

  • Of longer duration

  • Intensive, Individual Interventions

  • Individual Students

  • Assessment-based

  • Intense, durable procedures

  • Targeted Group Interventions

  • Some students (at-risk)

  • High efficiency

  • Rapid response

  • Targeted Group Interventions

  • Some students (at-risk)

  • High efficiency

  • Rapid response

  • Universal Interventions

  • All students

  • Preventive, proactive

  • Universal Interventions

  • All settings, all students

  • Preventive, proactive

Any

Curriculum

Area

1-5%

1-5%

5-10%

5-10%

Students

80-90%

80-90%

Dave Tilly, 2005


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Tier 3

  • Assessment Data

    • Instructional level performance

    • Error analysis (high errors, low errors, pattern)

    • Effect of incentives, practice, easier task

    • Verify intervention effect

  • Same implementation support as Tier 2

  • Instructional-level materials; Criterion-level materials


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Assessment Data


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Assessment Data


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Tier 3

  • Implement for 5-15 consecutive sessions with 100% integrity

  • Link to referral decision

  • Weekly graphs to teacher and weekly generalization probes outside of classroom, supply new materials

  • Troubleshoot implementation weekly


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Lessons Learned

  • Most individual interventions for reading

  • Standard protocols with slight modifications are best

  • Most interventions are successful (should be successful)

  • Generalization must be attended to

  • Team will not follow data without support and training to do so

  • Coordinate intervention start times with principal and stagger start dates (10-15 at a time plus Tier 2’s).

  • Organize master schedule for data collection and Tier times


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Tier 3 Intervention

  • >5% of children screened (total population) IF solid Tier 1

  • Possibly as low as 2% IF solid Tier 1 and Tier 2

  • About 1-2% failed RTI; 10% of most at-risk


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Successful RTI


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2004- 3rd Grade


Successful rti125 l.jpg

Successful RTI


Successful writing l.jpg

Successful Writing


Successful rti127 l.jpg

Successful RTI


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Measurement Error


Successful math l.jpg

Successful Math


Unsuccessful math l.jpg

Unsuccessful Math


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Tips for Effective Implementation


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Our Recipe for Intervention Success

PREPARE

Identify and Use standard protocols for intervention

Develop all needed materials

Develop packets or put on a central web site

Determine graphing program


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Our Recipe for Intervention Success

TRAIN

Explain

Watch the teacher do it with the actual child before you leave

Call or meet teacher after first day to problem solve


Our recipe for intervention success134 l.jpg

COLLECT DATA AND SUPPORT

Each week, graph intervention performance and do a generalization check with the child.

Graphed feedback to teachers with generalization checks for individual intervention once per week

Response-dependent performance feedback to sustain implementation accuracy

Monthly CBM to track growth and enhance existing Tier 1 Programs or advise new Tier 1

Data to principal weekly. Summarize effects and integrity of procedures.

Our Recipe for Intervention Success


Tracking title progress l.jpg

Tracking Title Progress


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Our Recipe for Intervention Success

USE DATA TO MAKE DECISIONS

RTI successful if child performs criterion-level probe (from screening) in the instructional range. RTI unsuccessful if 15 consecutive intervention sessions and criterion probe is not in the instructional range.

Increase task difficulty for intervention if child scores at mastery on task during intervention sessions


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Infrastructure for Implementation

  • Grade-level planning periods can be utilized

  • Special education “team” at school can be utilized

  • School Psych must be on-site 1 day/week

  • Developing master schedule for Tier 1, 2, and 3 intervention times is useful

  • Integrate efforts with evaluation referral team efforts (consider major reduction in meeting time and shift to intervention efforts!)


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Materials needed

  • Computer and software to organize data

  • Student data imported. Clerical person to enter data on-site for tier 1 screen only.

  • Color printer to print graphs + extra color cartridges

  • Probe materials, digital count-down timers

  • Intervention protocols, intervention materials (e.g., flashcard sets, reading materials)

  • Access to copier and some assistance with copying

  • Reinforcers for treasure chest (no more than $500 per school)


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Guidelines for Implementers

Use single trial scores for screening

Following screening, grade-wide graphs to principal

Return data to teachers within 48 hours with personal interpretation at grade-level team meeting

Include principal in critical meetings

Involve teachers at all stages


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Guidelines for Implementers

Learn about curriculum and instruction.

Integrate RTI with ongoing school and system reform efforts

Thoughtfully merge to subtract duplicate activities and to enhance more comprehensive supplemental and core instructional support activities that may be in place

Use RTI data to evaluate the value of ALL instructional programs or resource allocation decisions. Quantify bang for the buck using student performance data.


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Lessons Learned from Vail USD

Infrastructure for education being a results-based enterprise

Accountability

Principal is the Instructional Leader of a school

Principal as change agent

School psychologist as change agent

Replace resources/substitute don’t add

Minimize meetings

Track outcomes that matter


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Upset parent

Tantruming child

Bus 11 is late

Police on site for child abuse report

Principal

Visit from health department, bathroom out of paper towels again

Teacher out sick for rest of year

Meeting at district office/items due


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Principal

FILTER-- How much time allocated to instruction? Children actively engaged? Standards introduced? Effective instruction occurring?

Upset parent

DATA on Learning

Check on health dept

Goal Setting

Check on police interview

Teacher Evaluation

Etc.

Allocation of Instructional Resources


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Great Instructional Leaders

Have a filter

Allocate time and resources according to their filter

Use an AIMLINE

Have a framework for making data-driven decisions (know how to access the data they need to reach timely decisions)

Hold teachers, staff, students accountable

Research findings on effective schooling


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Great School Psychologists

Hand the principal the data the principal did not know to ask for but can’t live without

Follow the aimline and attend to implementation integrity

Understand the variables of effective instruction and engage in contextualized assessment that is technically valid for the purposes needed AND has treatment utility

Minimizes meeting time and “avoids the science of strange behavior…”


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Great Districts

Minimize time away from school, but use time together to review school improvement implementation efforts and ongoing results

Have the will to proactively chart the course of a district

Provide adequate resources and space for principals to be effective instructional leaders and hold them accountable for results

Respect the role of parents and actively engage them

Have a framework for evaluating results (know how to access data for decision making)

Evaluate quality of all programs locally and make decisions about continued use based on DATA.


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Great Teachers

  • Use data to identify where more/different/less instruction is needed

  • Have as a goal to accelerate all learning of all children

  • Proactively address barriers to learning

  • Take responsibility for learning that occurs in the classroom

  • Are confident and ready to collaborate in the classroom

  • Appreciate childhood and children (a little humor, lots of patience, enthusiasm)


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For More Information

[email protected]

www.isteep.com

Thank you to the US Dept of Education for providing all film clips shown in this presentation


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