Promotion of Physical Activity for Obesity Prevention in Youth - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Promotion of physical activity for obesity prevention in youth l.jpg
Download
1 / 79

Promotion of Physical Activity for Obesity Prevention in Youth. Russell Pate Arnold School of Public Health University of South Carolina. Societal Trends Influencing Physical Activity. Non-Motorized Transportation.

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.

Download Presentation

Promotion of Physical Activity for Obesity Prevention in Youth

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Promotion of physical activity for obesity prevention in youth l.jpg

Promotion of Physical Activity forObesity Prevention in Youth

Russell Pate

Arnold School of Public Health

University of South Carolina


Slide2 l.jpg

Societal Trends

Influencing Physical Activity


Non motorized transportation l.jpg

Non-Motorized Transportation

Percent of trips walked or biked by 5-15 year olds (McCann 2000)


Transportation to school l.jpg

Transportation to School

How children get to school (US DOT 2000)


Transportation to school5 l.jpg

Transportation to School

Percent of children walking and bicycling to school by country (CA Safe Routes to Schools 1996, Dept. of Transport 2001, Gilewe et al. 1998, Carlin et al. 1997)


Time spent viewing television nielson media research l.jpg

Time Spent Viewing Television(Nielson Media Research)

Hours Per Day


Tv sets vcrs computers internet per us household l.jpg

TV Sets / VCRs / Computers / Internetper US household


Slide8 l.jpg

Percentage of children ages 3 to 5 who are enrolled in center based childhood care and education programs

ChildStats.gov/ac2002


Percentage of us students enrolled in pe l.jpg

Percentage of US StudentsEnrolled in PE


Enrolled in pe yrbs l.jpg

Enrolled in PEYRBS

GRADE


Slide11 l.jpg

Increasing Prevalence of

Childhood Obesity


Overweight at or above 95 th percentile of bmi children and adolescents 6 19 years of age l.jpg

Overweight (at or above 95th percentile of BMI) children and adolescents 6-19 years of age


Topics l.jpg

Topics

  • Feasibility

  • Guidelines / Standards

  • Status

  • Promotion

  • Recommendations


Feasibility of l.jpg

Feasibility Of

Preventing Obesity

By Promoting

Physical Activity in Youth


Physical activity and physical fitness in african american girls with and without obesity l.jpg

Physical Activity and Physical Fitness in African-American Girls With and Without Obesity

Ward et al.

Obesity Research 1997;5:572-577


Methods l.jpg

Methods

  • 150 African American 5th grade students

  • BMI greater than 85th percentile

  • 54 with and 96 without obesity

  • Completed 3 days of physical activity recall

    • 3DPAR

    • Week days

    • After-school time

Ward et al., 1997


Participation in physical activity l.jpg

Participation in Physical Activity

 6 METs

4 METs

Ward et al., 1997


Epstein et al health psychology 1995 14 109 115 l.jpg

Epstein et al.

Health Psychology

1995;14:109-115

Effects of Decreasing Sedentary Behavior and Increasing Activity on Weight Changein Obese Children


Methods19 l.jpg

Methods

  • Obese children

    • 8-12 years old

    • From 61 families

  • Randomized to treatment groups

    • Increased exercise

    • Decreased sedentary behaviors

    • Both

  • Followed for 1 year

Epstein et al., 1995


Percent overweight l.jpg

Percent Overweight

0

4

8

12

P=.026

Months


Hypothetical example l.jpg

Hypothetical Example

  • Pre-obesity

    • Age = 6 years

    • BMI =16.5 (12 % Fat)

    • Weight =22.7 Kg

  • Obesity

    • Age =12 years

    • BMI =28.7 (35% Fat)

    • Weight =64.5 Kg


Hypothetical example22 l.jpg

Hypothetical Example

  • Weight Gain- Age 6-12

  • 41.8 Kg

  • Fat Gain - Age 6-12

  • 20.2 Kg

  • Excess Fat Gain- Age 6-12

  • 13.1 Kg


Hypothetical example23 l.jpg

Hypothetical Example

  • 100,870 Total Kcal

  • 16,812 Kcal/Yr

  • 323 Kcal/Wk

  • 46 Kcal/ Day


Slide24 l.jpg

How Physically Active Should Kids Be?


Healthy people 2010 physical activity in children and adolescents l.jpg

Healthy People 2010Physical Activity in Children and Adolescents

  • 22-6 Moderate physical activity in adolescents       

  • 22-7Vigorous physical activity in adolescents        

  • 22-8Physical education requirement in schools   

  • 22-9Daily physical education in schools 

  • 22-10 Physical activity in physical education class   

  • 22-11Television viewing


Healthy people 2010 physical activity in children and adolescents26 l.jpg

Healthy People 2010Physical Activity in Children and Adolescents

  • 22-6 Increase to at least 30% the proportion of young people in grades 9-12 who engage in moderate physical activity for at least 30 minutes on five or more of the previous seven days.


Healthy people 2010 physical activity in children and adolescents27 l.jpg

Healthy People 2010Physical Activity in Children and Adolescents

  • 22-7 Increase to at least 85% the proportion of young people in grades 9-12 who engage in vigorous physical activity that promotes the development and maintenance of cardiorespiratory fitness 3 or more days per week for 20 or more minutes per occasion.


San diego consensus physical activity guidelines for adolescents l.jpg

San Diego ConsensusPhysical Activity Guidelines for Adolescents

  • Guideline 1

    • All adolescents should be physically active daily, or nearly everyday, as part of play, games, sports, and transportation, recreation, physical education, or physical exercise, in the context of family, school, and community activities.


San diego consensus physical activity guidelines for adolescents29 l.jpg

San Diego ConsensusPhysical Activity Guidelines for Adolescents

  • Guideline 2

    • Adolescents should engage in three or more sessions per week of activities that last 20 min or more at a time and that require moderate to vigorous levels of exertion.


Health education authority recommendation 1 l.jpg

Health Education Authority Recommendation 1

All children and youth should participate in physical activity that is of at least moderate intensity for an average of one hour per day. While young people should be physically active nearly every day, the amount of physical activity can appropriately vary from day to day in type, setting, intensity, duration, and amount.


Health education authority recommendation 2 l.jpg

Health Education Authority Recommendation 2

All children and youth should participate at least twice per week in physical activities that enhance and maintain strength in the musculature of the trunk and upper arm girdle.


Slide32 l.jpg

How Active

Are American Kids?


National children and youth fitness study i l.jpg

National Children and YouthFitness Study I

  • 1985

  • n = 8,000

  • National probability sample

  • Ages 10 - 18

  • Six health-related fitness items

  • Extensive physical activity report

  • Itinerant testers


Ncyfsi weekly minutes outside of pe l.jpg

NCYFSIWeekly minutes outside of PE


Yrbs 2001 l.jpg

YRBS - 2001

  • 13,627 students completed questionnaires

  • 50 states and the District of Columbia

  • 87 items

  • 7 physical activity items


Youth risk behavior surveillance yrbs l.jpg

Youth Risk Behavior SurveillanceYRBS

  • How many of the past 7 days

    • Exercised or did PA for at least 20 min that made you sweat and breathe hard

    • Participated in PA for at least 30 min that did not make you sweat or breathe hard

    • Do exercise to strengthen or tone your muscles


Youth risk behavior surveillance yrbs37 l.jpg

Youth Risk Behavior SurveillanceYRBS

  • On an average school day, how many hours do you watch TV

  • In an average week when in school, on how many days do you go to PE class

  • During an average PE class, how many min do you spend actually exercising or playing sports?

  • During the past 12 months, on how many sports teams did you play


Slide38 l.jpg

YRBS-20019th Grade


Slide39 l.jpg

YRBS-2001Boys


Slide40 l.jpg

YRBS-2001Girls


Csa monitor l.jpg

CSA Monitor

  • Computer Science and Applications, Inc.

  • Model 7164

  • Weighs 1.5 oz; 5x5x1.5 cm

  • Measures integrated accelerations in the vertical plane


Amherst health and activity study l.jpg

Amherst Health and Activity Study

  • Subjects were recruited from 7 elementary schools, 1 junior high, and 1 senior high school

  • 38% of the 3648 students enrolled in PE returned consent forms (n=1379)

  • Subjects (n=400) were randomly selected to wear a CSA monitor for 7 days.

  • Subjects were divided into 4 grade groups, A=1-3, B=4-6, C=7-9 and D=grades 10-12.


Slide44 l.jpg

Amherst Health & Activity Cut-Points

METs=2.7570+(0.0015Countsmin-1)-(0.0896Age)-(0.000038x[counts  min-1Age])


Slide45 l.jpg

250

200

150

Minutes/Day

100

Male

Female

50

0

A

A

B

B

C

C

D

D

Grade Group

Median MVPA Minutes/Day

* males > females (p<0.001)

^ all age groups significantly different (p<0.001)

No significant age*gender interactions


Slide46 l.jpg

35

30

25

20

Median number of minutes

15

10

Male

5

Female

0

A

A

B

B

C

C

D

D

Grade Group

Median Vigorous Activity Minutes/Day

* males > females (p<0.001)

^ all age groups significantly different (p<0.001)

No significant age*gender interactions


Slide47 l.jpg

8

7

6

5

Minutes/Day

4

3

Male

2

Female

1

0

A

A

B

B

C

C

D

D

Grade Group

Median Very Vigorous Minutes

* males > females (p<0.001)

# all age groups significantly different (p<0.001) except C and D

No significant age*gender interactions


Slide48 l.jpg

100

90

80

70

60

Percentage

50

Males

Females

40

30

20

10

0

A

A

B

B

C

C

D

D

Grade Group

Percentage of children meeting HEA

recommendation


Slide50 l.jpg

Interventions

To Promote Physical Activity

In Youth


Intervention settings l.jpg

Intervention Settings

School

Home

Community

Healthcare


Active winners methods l.jpg

Active WinnersMethods

  • A community-based physical activity intervention

  • Quasi-experimental

    • 1 Intervention County and 1 Comparison County

  • Subjects were 5th grade students

  • Intervention – after school and summer camps

  • Measures – Students reported after-school activity

    • 3 time points – baseline, during and post-intervention


Active winners mean daily blks of vpa boys l.jpg

Active WinnersMean daily blks of VPABoys

P=.31


Active winners mean daily blks of vpa girls l.jpg

Active WinnersMean daily blks of VPAGirls

P=.43


Go for health methods l.jpg

Go for HealthMethods

  • Two intervention Schools and two control schools

  • Classroom health education

  • Environmental changes

    • School Lunch

    • Vigorous Physical Education


Go for health median minutes of mvpa in pe l.jpg

Go For HealthMedian Minutes of MVPA in PE


Spark methods l.jpg

SPARKMethods

  • Quasi-Experimental Design

  • 7 schools assigned to 3 conditions

    • Control

    • Trained classroom teacher

    • Physical Education specialist

  • 4th and 5th grade, 955 students


Spark mvpa minutes per lesson l.jpg

SPARKMVPA-Minutes per Lesson

P<.001

S>T>C


Catch methods l.jpg

CATCHMethods

  • A randomized, controlled field trial

  • 4 field centers

  • 56 Intervention schools, 40 Control schools

  • 3rd to 5th grade, 5106 students


Catch vpa of lesson l.jpg

CATCHVPA-% of Lesson

F=2.35, df=5, 1979, P=.04


Dwyer et al 1983 int j epidemiol l.jpg

Dwyer et al., 1983

Int J Epidemiol

An Investigation of the Effects of Daily Physical Activity on the Health of Primary School Students in South Australia


Methods62 l.jpg

Methods

  • 513 10-year olds from 7 primary schools in Adelaide, South Australia

  • 3 classes per school- randomly allocated to:

    • Control - 3 half-hour periods of PE/ week

    • Skill - 1.75 hr/day - skill instructions

    • Fitness - 1.75 hr/day - vigorous PA

  • 14 week program

  • Measurements were made pre and post-intervention

Dwyer et al., 1983


Changes after a 14 wk daily pe program l.jpg

Changes after a 14 wk daily PE Program

Dwyer et al., 1983

p<.01


Changes after a 14 wk daily pe program64 l.jpg

Changes after a 14 wk daily PE Program

* p<.05

Dwyer et al., 1983


Leap methods l.jpg

LEAPMethods

  • 8th grade girls from 24 high schools

  • 1603 girls, 50% African-American

  • School randomly assigned to control or intervention

  • Physical activity: 3DPAR

    • In 8th grade at baseline

    • In 9th grade during school based intervention


Leap intervention components l.jpg

LEAP Intervention Components

  • Physical Education

  • Other Health Components

    • Health Education

    • Health Environment

    • Health Services

    • Faculty/Staff Wellness

  • Family/Community Environment


Leap pe l.jpg

LEAP PE

Specific Objectives:

  • Develop behavioral skills

  • Enhance physical activity self-efficacy

  • Develop motor skills

  • Provide enjoyable participation in physical activity

  • Implement a personal out-of-school physical activity program


Prevalence of participation 1 30 min blk of vpa l.jpg

Prevalence of Participation1 30-min blk of VPA

. GroupP=.05


Prevalence of participation 1 30 min blk of vpa70 l.jpg

Prevalence of Participation1 30-min blk of VPA

Group P=0.05

Trend P=.02


M span methods l.jpg

M-SPANMethods

  • Environmental, policy, and social marketing intervention on physical activity.

  • 24 middle schools randomly assigned to intervention or control condition.

  • Over 2 years.

  • Designed to increase physical activity in PE classes and through-out the day.

  • Schools had a mean enrollment of 1109 and 44.5% were non-white.

Sallis et al, 2003


Moderate to vigorous physical activity l.jpg

Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity

P <0.001 for boys

Sallis et al., 2003


Slide73 l.jpg

Pate’s Recommendations

For

Increasing Physical

Activity in

Children and Youth


Home family l.jpg

Home/Family

  • Limit electronic entertainment

    • 1 hr/day

  • Protect After-school

    • Active recreation

  • Maximize time outside

  • Provide PA equipment


Home family75 l.jpg

Home/Family

  • Be active with kids

  • Help kids find Activities they enjoy

  • Support sports, lessons, clubs


School l.jpg

School

  • Enhance quality of PE

  • Increase quantity of PE

  • Retain/increase recess

  • Diversify extracurricular opportunities

  • Connect kids to community programs


Community l.jpg

Community

  • Provide comprehensive menu

  • Support school to program to home transition

  • Safe neighborhoods

  • Parks, trails

  • Safe routes to school


Healthcare l.jpg

Healthcare

  • Screen for PA

  • Patient evaluation

  • Referral to Community providers

  • Fund preventive services


Public health l.jpg

Public Health

  • Make PA a priority

  • Build infrastructure

  • Invest in interventions


  • Login