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A Lecture for the Sixth Northeast Asia Management and Economy Joint Conference Gwangju Kimdaejung Convention Center May 30, 2007 Linguistic Auditing and EIL for East Asian Tourist Industry Judy Yoneoka Kumamoto Gakuen University Email: [email protected] 1 Topics of Presentation

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A Lecture for theSixth Northeast Asia Management and Economy Joint ConferenceGwangju Kimdaejung Convention Center May 30, 2007Linguistic Auditing and EIL for East Asian Tourist IndustryJudy YoneokaKumamoto Gakuen UniversityEmail: [email protected]

1


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Topics of Presentation

1.The linguistic landscape of East Asia

2.International tourism in East Asia

3.An overview of Linguistic auditing

4.Focus on Kumamoto: Linguistic Auditing to assess present and future needs


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East Asia

Japan

Map from Fauser, 2007 presentation




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The OTHER regionallanguage:

漢字

Advantages:

Chinese characters are widely recognized

Meanings are (generally) understood

       山、川、道、路

Disadvantages:

Which characters?  勞 or 労? 運転手

How to pronounce?


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2. International Tourism in East Asia

  • In 2004, China received 109 million visitors from overseas, 60 times that of 1978.

  • Recently, TTG Asia cited China as the 2004 best travel destination in the world.http://www.china.org.cn/english/travel/126448.htm

  • In 2006 international tourists to Japan were 7,334 thousand PAX, up 9.0% compared with last year, and renewing the record high.http://www.tourism.jp/english/statistics/inbound/

  • The number of Koreans travelling abroad passed the 10 million mark for the first time in 2005, growing at a rate of 14.2% for the year.http://www.airhighways.com/korea.htm



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EIL 2006

LOTE

OLIL

Proficiency in International Languages Needed in Tourist Industry

EIL = English as an International LanguageLOTE = Languages other than EILOLIL = Own language as an International Language

EIL

Based on Honna, 2007 presentation


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English as an East Asian Tourist Language 2006?

  • In all, English remains a traveller's most useful language overall, although for longer stays in any East Asian country picking up at least some of the local language is essential. When looking for English speakers, tourist areas tend to be a good bet and in general younger people or those around universities are most likely to speak at least some English. That being said, there are many areas where no English is spoken so patience and a good phrasebook are always a safe bet. http://wikitravel.org/en/East_Asia


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What is linguistic auditing and how can it help? 2006

  • Began in Europe

  • Helps businesses realize their language goals

  • Uses an assessment method based on structured tests and face-to-face interviews

  • Gives advice on appropriate training solutions

  • Analyzes specific objectives and requirements

  • ...SAVES

    • time

    • money

    • unnecessary language training

      http://www.modulor.us/language_audits/en



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Needs Assessment 2006

  • Actual and immediate needs (= What does the company need to do in another language now? )

    By questionnaire to Kumamoto hotels and actual tourists

  • Hidden and potential needs (= What could the company do in another language to be more successful and profitable?)

    By questionnaire to potential Korean tourists


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Evaluating responses 2006

  • 1. How prepared is the hotel to meet their linguistic needs?

  • 2. What is the best way to meet their needs? (translation resources, language services, tailored ESP courses etc.)

  • 3. What resources do they already have?

    (human, machine, community, finance)

  • 4. What is the hotel doing already?


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Focus on Linguistic Auditing in Kumamoto 2006

  • 1. Kumamoto as a tourist town

    • In 2003, Kumamoto declared itself a tourist town

    • 3-year plan (2005-2007) to develop tourism

    • 400 year anniversary of Kumamoto Castle

  • 2. Kumamoto as the heart of Kyushu

    • Kyushu Bullet Train to be completed in 2012

  • 3. Kumamoto as an international town

    • UD and the 4-language plan






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Needs Assessment: Language Needs of Korean Travelers to Kumamoto

135 respondents across Korea

Age breakdown; 19-24 32%

25-29 44%

30-39 12%

40-49 9%

50- 3%


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Do you want to visit Japan (again)? Kumamoto

Have you been to Japan?

  • 60% of Koreans surveyed have been to Japan, and almost all (96%) would like to go (again).

  • Only 13% of Korean visitors have been to Kyushu, whereas 23% indicated they would like to go to Kyushu (again).


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What do you like to do/see most when traveling? Kumamoto

  • History, local food and nature rated highest.

  • Shopping rated only 6%.


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How do you like to travel? Kumamoto

  • However, most Korean travelers to Kumamoto come on tours!


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How is your language ability? Kumamoto

Note the inverse trends:

  • Most people rated themselves as fair or poor at English

  • Most people rated themselves as good or none at Japanese


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Fig. 8 What language(s) do you plan/expect to use in Japan? Kumamoto

Fig. 9 Do you plan/expect to use English in Japan?


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If Korean/English were used in advertising/menus, would you be more likely to use the business?

  • Advertising/literature in Korean is a key factor for over 85% of Korean tourists, but advertising in English “will do” for over half of the potential visitors.


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Part 2: Linguistic Responses be more likely to use the business? of Hotels in Kumamoto


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The Questionnaire be more likely to use the business?

  • Mailed to 60 hotels in Kumamoto in October 2006

  • All hotels had presence on at least one international hotel website

  • 17 hotels responded

  • Response rate = 28%


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RESULTS 1: Number and type of foreign guests per month be more likely to use the business?

3 general groups:

1-9 8 hotels 47%

10-50 5 hotels 29%

51-1600(!) 4 hotels 24%

More Western (65-90%) 5 hotels29%

Half and half (50%)  4 hotels24%

Less Western (0-49%) 8 hotels47%


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HOTEL be more likely to use the business?

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

TOTAL

%

Korean

1120

89

4.9

89

1.8

0

0.6

0.8

5

0.4

0.1

3.6

10

2.5

4

2

1334

59%

Chinese

480

0.9

69

41

1.8

0.5

0.6

0

0

0.2

0.6

3.6

10

2.5

3

4

618

27%

Western

0

0

20

210

0.5

2

0.8

0.8

5

1.4

1.2

0.8

16

5

3

14

280

12%

Other

0

0

4.9

37

0

0

0

0

0

0

0.2

0

4

0

0

0

45.7

2%

Number of guests per hotel by nationality

Compared with percentage of

tourists who stay in Kumamoto

(2005 data)


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Languages used with Foreign guests be more likely to use the business?

with Westerners

Other: Gestures 20%



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Linguistic Preparedness be more likely to use the business?of Hotels (上=spoken, 下 = written)

82%

59-65%

47%

70-76%


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CONCLUSIONS… be more likely to use the business?

Speaking English is important,

And useful

for MANY but not ALL tourists

But to really promote tourism in Kumamoto

Use more Korean and Chinese


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and DIRECTIONS… be more likely to use the business?

Or at least write in romaji and kanji

as much as possible…


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…and Dreams: be more likely to use the business?The Kumamoto Welcome Card

kumamoto

kumamoto


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