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Political Campaigning and Media. Prepared by: Tina Conley University of Washington COM 538 December 6, 2004. Overview. Background Applied Theories History of Political Campaigning Political Campaigns and Television 1964 Emergence of the Internet Current Situation

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Political campaigning and media l.jpg

Political Campaigning and Media

Prepared by: Tina Conley

University of Washington

COM 538

December 6, 2004


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Overview

  • Background

    • Applied Theories

  • History of Political Campaigning

    • Political Campaigns and Television

    • 1964

    • Emergence of the Internet

  • Current Situation

    • Internet and the 2004 Presidential Elections

  • Presidential Races of the Future

    • The Future of Political Campaigns

  • Recommendations

Tina Conley

December 6, 2004


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Applied Theories

OVERARCHING THEORY

  • Communication Model

    • Harold Lasswell, 1948

      SUPPORTING THEORIES

  • Political Competition Model

  • Uses and Gratification Theory

Tina Conley

December 6, 2004


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Political Campaigning and Media

Lasswell’s Formula of the COMMUNICATION PROCESS

Political

Campaigns

Content &

Messaging

Television &

Internet

Audience

Effect

  • Presidential Candidates

  • Political Party

  • Current Affairs

  • Financial Backing

  • Themes

  • Types of Messages

  • Types of Influences

  • Television Ad Campaigns

  • Online News Releases

  • Voters (Demographics)

  • Political Enthusiasts /Insiders

  • Financial Supporters

  • Campaign Volunteers

  • + Candidate

  • - Candidate

  • + Opponent

  • - Opponent

  • No Change

Tina Conley

December 6, 2004


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Political Campaigns and Television

Television

  • 1952 – present: Considered dominate medium

  • 1980 – present: Overall, commercials carry a negative tone

  • Regulated by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC)

  • Today, 99 percent of U.S. households have at least one television

    Advantages

  • Reaches broad audience

  • Generates awareness

  • Identifies key issues set by presidential candidates

  • Shapes political attitudes

    Drawbacks

  • Expensive for candidates

  • Limited availability to audience

  • Lacks interaction

Tina Conley

December 6, 2004


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1964

Lyndon Johnson (D) v. Barry Goldwater (R)

  • Dominating Theme: Vietnam War

    • Military Draft

    • Nuclear War

      Johnson’s Daisy Ad

  • Considered the most famous political ad of all time

  • Broadcasted once

  • Ad description

    • Theme: Nuclear war

    • Negative Ad: Goldwater portrayed as reckless

    • Results: Johnson leads with largest percentage recorded

  • 2003 Remake

Tina Conley

December 6, 2004


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Emergence of the Internet

Campaigns used Internet for electronic mail and to coordinate field operations.

Bill Clinton v. Bob Dole

“Information Super Highway”

19841988199219962000

The use of the Internet significantly increased that some considered it to be an “Electronic Town Hall”

The Internet is used by 24 percent of Americans as a political source of information

Question: What is the role of the Internet in political campaigns?

Tina Conley

December 6, 2004


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Political Campaigning and the Internet

Official Websites of Presidential Candidates

  • Consider to be another valuable avenue to reach audience

    • Internet usage up from 2000 by nine percent

    • Broadband is pulling viewers away from television

  • Cost

    • Less expensive than television

    • 2004: Money spent on television and Internet campaigns

  • Messaging

    • Stronger negative tone

    • Massive source of information

  • No regulations

    • - Standard guidelines

Tina Conley

December 6, 2004


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Political Campaigning and the Internet

Advantages

  • Always available

  • Wide range of current information

  • Less expensive than television commercials

  • Interactive

    Drawbacks

  • Niche audience

  • Must have access to Internet

Tina Conley

December 6, 2004


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Political Web Users

Description of Political Web Users

  • Politically savvy

  • Politically active

  • More likely to vote

  • More likely to seek out information

  • Diffusion of Innovation: Early adopters

    of online political campaigns

    • - “First to know”

      Young Adults

  • Account for a majority of political web users

  • The most difficult to reach through traditional sources

Tina Conley

December 6, 2004


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The Internet and the 2004 Presidential Race

Focus: Press releases posted online during the last month of the 2004 presidential election.

www.georgewbush.com

  • Central purpose: Raise money

  • Middle-class women voters and voters in battleground states

    • - Ignores young adults

  • Attacks toward opponent

    • Negative, 89 percent

      www.johnkerry.com

  • Central purpose: Raise money

  • Voters in metropolitan areas

    • - Provides limited information to appeal to young adults

  • Comparative messaging

    • - Negative, 40 percent

Question: How many of you visited official websites of presidential candidates?

Tina Conley

December 6, 2004


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Presidential Races of the Future

The Future of Political Campaigns

  • Reflects the past

    • - Substantial information is out there for those who seek it

  • Television remains the dominate medium to reach audience

  • Internet will increase in popularity

  • Regulations will be enforced for online political campaigns

  • Concern for voters currently between the ages 18 to 24 years old

    Media Forecast

  • Technologies are changing the way we watch television

  • Broadband continues to increase, pulling viewers away from TV

    • - Television networks considering online distribution models

Tina Conley

December 6, 2004


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Recommendations

  • Media Integration

    • Currently, television ads are available online

    • Television ads including URLs to websites

  • The role of media

    • Identify avenues to reach the appropriate audience

    • Customize messaging to media

    • Broaden online messaging to appeal to 18-24 year olds

  • Seek new ways to deliver messages

    • - News media

Tina Conley

December 6, 2004


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Thank You

Political Campaigning and Media

Prepared by: Tina Conley

University of Washington

COM 538

All images courtesy of Getty Images unless otherwise noted.


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