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Physics 362. Modern Physics Seminars. Future arguments. ·         Introduction to Astronomy ·         The Michelson-Morley Experiment ·         Consequences of relativity: relativity and time travel, relativity in everyday life ·         Measuring distances in astronomy and the Hubble law

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physics 362

Physics 362

Modern Physics Seminars

future arguments
Future arguments
  • ·        Introduction to Astronomy
  • ·        The Michelson-Morley Experiment
  • ·        Consequences of relativity: relativity and time travel, relativity in everyday life
  • ·        Measuring distances in astronomy and the Hubble law
  • ·        X-ray astrophysics
  • ·        Nuclear Energy Production
  • ·        Alternate energy sources (wind-mills, solar cells, etc.)
  • ·        Principles of general relativity
  • ·        Radiation processes
  • ·        Neutrinos
  • ·        Superconductivity
  • ·        Cosmology
today s seminar
Today’s seminar
  • The failure of Classical Physics
    • Classical mechanics and electromagnetism
    • The Michelson-Morley experiment
fringe position
Fringe position

A change in the distance of one of the two mirrors introduces a phase change between the two light beams.

fringe position8
Fringe position

When the mirror is moved by ½ l, the path is change by l and the fringe pattern is moved by one fringe.

measuring the refraction index10
Measuring the Refraction Index

Light for M1

Light for M2

Screen

measuring the refraction index12

Na

Nm

DN·l

Measuring the Refraction Index

Light for M1

Light for M2

Screen

measuring the refraction index13
Measuring the Refraction Index

L = thickness

n = index of refraction

 Number of wavelengths in the block (2 times):Nm=2L/ln=2Ln/l

Number of wavelengths in same distance without block:Na=2L/l=2L/l

 Phase change (in terms of wavelengths):DN=Nm -Na=2Ln/l- 2L/l= 2L/l (n-1)

measuring distances
Measuring Distances

Phase change:DN=2Ln/l- 2L/l= 2L/l (n-1)

 The length of an object can be expressed in terms of the wavelength of light!!!

For this experiment A. A. Michelson received the Nobel Price in 1907.

the michelson morley experiment17

µDL

Light for M1

Light for M2

DL=Dt·c

Screen

The Michelson-Morley Experiment

Light for M1

Light for M2

Screen

If light from M2 is delayed by Dt

the michelson morley experiment18

Mirror

v

u12=c+v

u21=c-v

u13=u31=

3

Beam Splitter

1

Mirror

2

Screen

The Michelson-Morley Experiment

Dt = t121 = t131 = Lv2/c3

the michelson morley experiment19
The Michelson-Morley Experiment
  • How can we measure the delay?
  • There is no reference available that is at rest in ether!!!
  • The experimental apparatus is rotated
the michelson morley experiment21

v

u12=c+v

u21=c-v

u13=u31=

The Michelson-Morley Experiment

a)

Mirror

3

Beam Splitter

Dta = t121 = t131 = Lv2/c3

1

Mirror

2

Dla = c Dt

Screen

the michelson morley experiment22

u12=u21=

u13=c+v

u31=c-v

v

The Michelson-Morley Experiment

b)

Beam Splitter

Dtb = t121 = t131 = - Lv2/c3

1

3

Screen

Mirror

Dlb = c Dt

2

Mirror

 Dl = Dla - Dlb = 2Lv2/c2 ~ 0.2 mm

the michelson morley experiment24
The Michelson-Morley Experiment

Insert calculation of expected dL

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