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### Physics 362

Modern Physics Seminars

Future arguments

- · Introduction to Astronomy
- · The Michelson-Morley Experiment
- · Consequences of relativity: relativity and time travel, relativity in everyday life
- · Measuring distances in astronomy and the Hubble law
- · X-ray astrophysics
- · Nuclear Energy Production
- · Alternate energy sources (wind-mills, solar cells, etc.)
- · Principles of general relativity
- · Radiation processes
- · Neutrinos
- · Superconductivity
- · Cosmology

Today’s seminar

- The failure of Classical Physics
- Classical mechanics and electromagnetism
- The Michelson-Morley experiment

Fringe position

A change in the distance of one of the two mirrors introduces a phase change between the two light beams.

Fringe position

When the mirror is moved by ½ l, the path is change by l and the fringe pattern is moved by one fringe.

Measuring the Refraction Index

L = thickness

n = index of refraction

Number of wavelengths in the block (2 times):Nm=2L/ln=2Ln/l

Number of wavelengths in same distance without block:Na=2L/l=2L/l

Phase change (in terms of wavelengths):DN=Nm -Na=2Ln/l- 2L/l= 2L/l (n-1)

Measuring Distances

Phase change:DN=2Ln/l- 2L/l= 2L/l (n-1)

The length of an object can be expressed in terms of the wavelength of light!!!

For this experiment A. A. Michelson received the Nobel Price in 1907.

Light for M1

Light for M2

DL=Dt·c

Screen

The Michelson-Morley ExperimentLight for M1

Light for M2

Screen

If light from M2 is delayed by Dt

v

u12=c+v

u21=c-v

u13=u31=

3

Beam Splitter

1

Mirror

2

Screen

The Michelson-Morley ExperimentDt = t121 = t131 = Lv2/c3

The Michelson-Morley Experiment

- How can we measure the delay?
- There is no reference available that is at rest in ether!!!
- The experimental apparatus is rotated

u12=c+v

u21=c-v

u13=u31=

The Michelson-Morley Experimenta)

Mirror

3

Beam Splitter

Dta = t121 = t131 = Lv2/c3

1

Mirror

2

Dla = c Dt

Screen

u13=c+v

u31=c-v

v

The Michelson-Morley Experimentb)

Beam Splitter

Dtb = t121 = t131 = - Lv2/c3

1

3

Screen

Mirror

Dlb = c Dt

2

Mirror

Dl = Dla - Dlb = 2Lv2/c2 ~ 0.2 mm

The Michelson-Morley Experiment

Insert calculation of expected dL

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