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Phylum Chordata. Phylum Chordata. They have 4 main characteristics that they must have at some time in their development. dorsal, hollow nerve cord notochord- long supporting rod runs near nerve cord pharyngeal pouches- paired structures in the throat region

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Phylum chordata2 l.jpg
Phylum Chordata

They have 4 main characteristics that they must have at some time in their development.

dorsal, hollow nerve cord

notochord- long supporting rod runs near nerve cord

pharyngeal pouches- paired structures in the throat region

a tail that extends beyond the anus


Sub phylum vertebrata l.jpg
Sub-Phylum Vertebrata

  • A chordate that has a strong supporting structure – Vertebral Column or Backbone.

  • Dorsal hollow nerve cord -aka Spinal cord

  • The front of the spinal cord grows into the brain

  • Backbone made of individual segments called vertebrae.

  • Endoskeleton-supports and protects the animals body.

  • Major groups-Fishes, Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds, and Mammals


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Fishes

  • Aquatic vertebrates

    • fresh and marine waters

  • Fish were the first vertebrates to evolve

    • About 510 million years ago

      • Not like the fish we see today.

  • Characteristics (there are some exceptions)

    • Paired fins -movement

    • Scales –protection

    • Gills –gas exchange

    • Ectotherms


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    Fishes

    • Three groups of fish

      • Agnathans

        • Jawless fishes (Lampreys and Hagfish)

        • Lack true teeth and jaws

      • Chondrichthyes

        • Cartilaginous fishes (Sharks, rays, etc.)

        • Skeletons are built entirely of cartilage, not bone.

      • Osteichthyes

        • Bony fishes

        • Skeletons are made of hard, calcified tissue called bone.


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    Fishes

    • Feeding

      • Herbivores, carnivores, parasites, filter feeders, and detritus feeders.

      • They have a 2-opening digestive track with:

        • Mouth, esophagus, stomach, pyloric ceca, intestine, anus, also have a liver, and pancreas

  • Respiration

    • Most fishes exchange gas through gills located on either side of the pharynx

    • Water passes over the gills and O2 and CO2 are exchanged between the water and blood

    • A few fishes have “lungs”


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    Fishes

    • Circulation

      • Closed circulatory system with a four-chambered heart that pumps blood in a single loop:

        • Heart Gills Body Heart

    • Excretion

      • Waste in the form of ammonia

      • Some wastes diffuse through gills (CO2) and others are removed by the kidneys

    • Response

      • Well-developed nervous system

      • Highly developed sense organs

      • Lateral line system

        • Sensitive receptor system that enables fish to detect gentle currents and vibrations in the water


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    Fishes

    • Movement

      • Move by alternately contracting paired sets of muscles on either side of the backbone.

        • Creates a series of S-shaped curves

      • Use of fins for direction

      • Swim bladder –gas-filled organ that helps fish stay afloat.

  • Reproduction

    • External and internal fertilization –depends on the species


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    Amphibians

    • About 4000 living species

    • First seen about 360 million years ago

    • Gave rise to all other land vertebrates

    • Amphibian means “Double Life”

      • Live in water and on land

        • Must return to water to reproduce

    • Characteristics

      • Lives in water as a larva

      • Lives on land as an adult

      • Moist skin that contains mucus glands

      • Lacks scales and claws

      • Ectotherms


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    Amphibians

    • Three groups of Amphibians

      • Salamanders

        • Long bodies and tails

        • Most have 4 legs

        • Carnivores

        • Found in moist woods

          • Tunnel under rocks and rotting logs

        • some keep their gills

      • Frogs and Toads

        • They can jump

        • Frogs have longer legs than toads

        • Frogs found more in water areas and toads in moist woods and deserts

        • Adults lack tails

      • Caecilians

        • Legless animals that live in water or moist soil

        • Feed on small invertebrates


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    Amphibians

    • Feeding

      • Tadpoles are filter feeders or herbivores

      • Adults are carnivores

      • Complete 2-opening digestive track

        • Mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, cloaca, also have a liver, gallbladder and pancreas

    • Respiration

      • Larval forms- gas exchange through skin and gills

      • Adults- gas exchange through lungs and skin

      • Salamanders do not have well developed lungs

        • Gas exchange through linings in mouth

    • Circulation

      • Closed circulatory system with a heart that pumps blood in a double loop:

        • Heart Lungs/Skin Heart Body Heart


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    Amphibians

    • Excretion

      • Kidneys that filter waste from the blood and pass out the cloaca:

        • Kidneys Ureters Urinary bladder Cloaca Outside

  • Response

    • Well developed nervous system and sensory systems

    • Large and moveable eyes

    • Hear through tympanic membranes

      • Membrane vibrates sending sound to the brain

      • Many larva and adult forms have lateral line system to detect water movement


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    Amphibians

    • Movement

      • Larvae often move like fish “wiggling” their bodies and using their tail

      • Adults use front and back legs for walking, running, jumping

    • Reproduction

      • Internal and external fertilization

      • Shell less eggs

      • Eggs are laid in water—as many as 200


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    Reptiles

    • About 7000 living species

    • First seen about 350 million years ago

      • More common around 300 million years ago

    • Found all over earth, except very cold places

    • Characteristics

      • Dry, scaly skin

        • The tough skin does not grow, it needs to be shed periodically

      • Lungs

      • Terrestrial eggs

      • Well developed skull

      • Backbone and tail

      • Four limbs (except snakes)

      • Ectotherms


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    Reptiles

    • Four surviving groups of reptiles

      • Lizards and snakes

        • Lizards

          • Legs, clawed toes, external ears, movable eyelids

        • Snakes

          • Lack limbs

      • Crocodilians

        • Alligators, Crocodiles, etc.

        • Fierce carnivores

        • Only freshwater, except crocodiles that may live in either salt water or freshwater

      • Turtles and tortoises

        • Turtles live in water

        • Tortoises live on land

        • Have a shell that is built into their skeleton

        • Lack teeth—have bony ridges that cover upper and lower jaws

      • Tuatara

        • Found only on a few small islands off of New Zealand

        • Resemble lizards, except they lack external ears, and retain primitive scales

        • Have a “third eye” on top of head….function is still unknown


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    Reptiles

    • Feeding

      • Herbivores, and carnivores

      • They have a two-opening digestive track

    • Respiration

      • Lungs for respiration

        • Lungs are “spongy” providing more gas exchange than amphibians

    • Circulation

      • Have a closed circulatory system

      • Efficient double-loop

        • Heart lungs heart body heart

      • Have two atria and either one or two ventricles

        • Most reptiles have one ventricle, however crocodiles and alligators have the most developed hearts with two ventricles.


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    Reptiles

    • Excretion

      • Kidneys filter blood and produce urine

      • Some reptiles have a urinary bladder

      • Urine contains either ammonia or uric acid

    • Response

      • Similar brain to that of an amphibian

        • Except cerebrum and cerebellum are larger compared to the rest of the brain

      • Complex eyes that can see color well

      • Good sense of smell

      • Most have a pair of sensory organs in the roof of the mouth that can detect chemicals

      • Simple ears with external ear drums

      • Some snakes can detect body heat


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    Reptiles

    • Movement

      • Reptiles with legs have larger and stronger limbs that enable them to walk, run, burrow, swim, or climb

      • Limbs are rotated further under the body allowing them to carry more body weight

      • Legs and feet of many aquatic turtles have developed into flippers

    • Reproduction

      • All reproduce by internal fertilization

        • Male deposits sperm inside the female

      • Most lay eggs that develop out side the body

      • The shell and membranes of the egg help create a protected environment for the embryo to develop with out drying out

        • Called an amniotic egg


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    Birds

    • Nearly 10,000 bird species today

    • Reptile like animals

    • First seen 150 million years ago

      • Archaeopteryx

    • Characteristics

      • Endotherms

        • Maintain a constant body temperature

      • Hollow bones

      • Outer covering of feathers

        • Made mostly of protein

        • Help birds to fly and maintain temp.

      • Two legs that are covered with scales

        • Used for walking or perching

      • Modified front limbs for flying


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    Birds

    • Over 30 different groups

      • Largest group is the Passerines

        • Over 5,000 species

        • Perching birds

        • Larks, sparrows, finches

      • Some other groups

        • Pelicans and their relatives

          • Pelicans, boobies, etc.

      • Parrots

        • Macaws, lovebirds, cockatoos, etc.

    • Birds of prey

      • Condors, hawks, owls, eagles, etc.

  • Cavity-nesting birds

    • Woodpeckers, toucans, etc.

  • Herons and their relatives

    • Storks, spoonbills, cranes, herons, etc.

  • Ostriches and their relatives

    • Ostriches, emus, etc.


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    Birds

    • Feeding

      • The beak is adapted to the type of food they eat.

      • Complete two-opening digestive track from mouth to cloaca

      • Lack teeth

    • Respiration

      • One-way flow of air

        • Allows for constant exposure of the lungs to oxygen-rich air

      • Have air sacs in the body cavity and bones

    • Circulation

      • Closed circulatory system with a double loop system

      • Four-chambered heart

        • Two atria and two ventricles

      • Complete separation of oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor blood


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    Birds

    • Excretion

      • Similar to reptiles

      • Nitrogenous waste is removed from blood by the kidney, converted to uric acid and deposited in the cloaca

      • Most water is reabsorbed in the cloaca leaving uric acid crystals in a white pasty form

    • Response

      • Well developed sense organs

        • Well developed eyes

        • See color very well

        • Hear very well

      • Brain that can quickly interpret and respond to a lot of incoming signals


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    Birds

    • Movement

      • Some birds cannot fly

        • They walk, run, or swim

      • Large chest muscles that aid in flying

    • Reproduction

      • Both male and female reproductive tracks open into the cloaca

      • Organs often shrink in size when not breeding

      • Amniotic eggs

        • Similar to reptiles, but have a hard outer shell


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    Mammals

    • Nearly 4500 species today

    • First seen 220 million years ago

    • Characteristics

      • Endotherms

        • Maintain a constant body temperature

      • Have hair

      • Nourish their young with milk

      • Breath air

      • Four-chambered heart


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    Mammals

    • Three main groups of mammals

      • Differ in means of reproduction and development

        • Monotremes

          • Three species exist (duckbill platypus, and two species spiny ant eaters)

          • Lay eggs

          • Have cloaca

        • Marsupials

          • Bear live young that complete their development in a pouch

          • Kangaroos, koalas, wombats

        • Placentals

          • Nutrients, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and wastes are exchanged between embryo and mother through the placenta

          • Humans, dogs, cats, elephants, etc…


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    Mammals

    • Feeding

      • As mammals evolved, the form and function of their jaws and teeth became adapted to eat different types of food

      • Herbivores

        • Jaws move from side to side

      • Carnivores

        • Jaws move up and down

    • Respiration

      • Lungs

      • Diaphragm

        • Muscle that pulls the bottom of the chest cavity downward which increases volume

    • Circulation

      • Closed, double-loop circulatory system

      • Four-chambered heart


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    Mammals

    • Excretion

      • Highly developed kidneys that extract nitrogenous waste from the blood in the form of urea

      • Urea, with other wastes, and water combine to form urine (Pee)

        • Urine is stored in a urinary bladder until it is eliminated

    • Response

      • Have the most highly developed brain of any other animal

      • Highly developed senses

        • Taste

        • Smell

        • Touch

        • Hearing

        • Sight


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    Mammals

    • Movement

      • Evolved a variety of adaptations that aid in movement:

        • Backbone that flexes both vertically and side to side

        • Shoulders and pelvic bones became more streamlined and flexible

      • Allows them to:

        • Run, walk, climb, burrow, hop, pounce, swing, fly, leap, and swim

    • Reproduction

      • Internal fertilization

        • Males deposit sperm inside the female reproductive track

      • Three types of development and birth

        • Monotremes, Marsupials, and Placentals

      • Young depend on mother for food and protecting


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