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ORGANIC CHEMISTRY PowerPoint PPT Presentation

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY Many molecules important to living organisms some are quite small----> water many important ones are very large ----> macromolecules 4 major types found in living organisms : carbohydrates lipids proteins nucleic acids

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Organic chemistry l.jpg


  • Many molecules important to living organisms

    • some are quite small----> water

    • many important ones are very large ---->macromolecules

    • 4 major types found in living organisms:

      • carbohydrates

      • lipids

      • proteins

      • nucleic acids

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Chemistry of Water

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  • Living things are composed of organic molecules, which means that they contain carbon

    • carbon has four electrons in outer shell which can bond with other atoms

    • carbon can be linked to other carbons or atoms such as hydrogen (H), oxygen (O) and nitrogen(N)

    • long links of these carbons can form into chains or rings

    • Some organic molecules ONLY contain linked carbons and hydrogen ---->hydrocarbons (ex: methane)

    • living organisms tend to be composed of very long and unreactive carbon chains (unlike methane, which is very reactive!)

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  • In organic chemistry, molecules with similar properties are grouped together

    • These all have similar groups of atoms, and these groups of atoms are called functional groups

    • Functional groups can provide physical and chemical properties such as polarity and acidity (ex; carboxyl, -COOH, is a weak acid)

    • Most reactions in living organisms involves the transfer of a functional group from one molecule to another

    • The following is a list of common functional groups

      • OHHydroxyl

      • COCarbonyl

      • COOHCarboxyl

      • NH2Amino

      • SHSulfhydryl

      • PO4Phosphate

      • CH3Methyl

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  • Construction of Macromolecules

    • many macromolecules are polymers, which means that they are constructed of many linked identical or similar subunits

    • How are macromolecules made? Remove an OH from one molecule, and an H from another molecule

      • this requires energy

      • it is called dehydration synthesis (do you see the water above?!)

      • in living organisms, enzymes assist in these reactions

    • Macromolecules are disassembled in the opposite way, by adding a water molecule (OH added to one, H to another subunit)

      • this releases energy

      • reactions of this type are called hydrolysis

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Dehydration Synthesis

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