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10. REDESIGNING THE ORGANIZATION WITH INFORMATION SYSTEMS. Learning Objectives. Demonstrate how building new systems can produce organizational change Explain how organization can develop suitable info systems Identify core activities in systems development process *. Learning Objectives.

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Learning objectives
Learning Objectives

  • Demonstrate how building new systems can produce organizational change

  • Explain how organization can develop suitable info systems

  • Identify core activities in systems development process


Learning objectives1
Learning Objectives

  • Analyze organizational requirements for building successful systems

  • Describe models for determining business value of info systems


Information systems plan
Information Systems Plan

Direction of system development:

  • Rationale

  • Current situation

  • Management strategy

  • Implementation plan

  • Budget


Enterprise analysis
Enterprise Analysis

(Business Systems Planning)

Organization-wide information needs in terms of:

  • Organizational units

  • Functions

  • Processes

  • Data elements

    Helps identify key entities & attributes in organization’s data


Requirements analysis revisited
Requirements Analysis Revisited

  • Interview

  • Document-oriented approach: descriptive paperwork

  • Form-oriented approach: input (application) and output (report) forms.

Critical success factors
Critical Success Factors

  • Small number, easily identifiable operational goals

  • Shaped by industry, manager, environment

  • Believed to assure firm’s success.

  • Used to determine organization’s information requirements


Using csfs to develop systems
Using CSFs to Develop Systems

  • Collect manager’s CSFs

  • Aggregate, analyze individual’s CSFs

  • Develop agreement on company CSFs

  • Define company CSFs

  • Use CSFs to develop information system priorities

  • Define DSS & databases


Logical design revisited
Logical Design Revisited

  • Organize by relevance and usage

  • The results can be implemented using many tools and platforms (portable)

  • The results do not change as rapidly (stable)

Spectrum of organizational change
Spectrum Of Organizational Change

  • Automation

  • Rationalization

  • Business reengineering (BPR)

  • Paradigm shift

Spectrum of organizational change1
Spectrum Of Organizational Change

  • Automation: using technology to perform tasks efficiently (physical design, implementation / testing)

Spectrum of organizational change2
Spectrum Of Organizational Change

  • Rationalization of procedures: streamline sops; Eliminate bottlenecks. Find a different way to organize the processes. (Logical Design level)

Spectrum of organizational change3
Spectrum Of Organizational Change

  • Business Reengineering: radical redesign of processes to improve cost, quality, service; Maximize benefits of technology. Accomplish the same goal with different means. (Requirements Analysis level)

Spectrum of organizational change p aradigm shift
Spectrum Of Organizational Change:Paradigm Shift

  • Paradigm is a complete mental model of how a complex system functions

  • A paradigm shift involves rethinking the nature of the business, the organization; A complete re-conception of how the system should function. (Enterprise View level)


Risks rewards
Risks & Rewards







It capabilities impacts
IT Capabilities & Impacts

  • Transactional:transforms unstructured processes to routine transactions to improve efficiency

  • Geographical:IT makes processes independent of location

  • Automational:replaces, reduces human labor


Source: Davenport & Short “The New Industrial Engineering”(1990)

It capabilities impacts1
IT Capabilities & Impacts

  • Analytical: can bring complex analytical methods to bear on process

  • Informational:makes vast amounts of detailed information available

  • Sequential:enables changes in sequence, parallel tasks


Source: Davenport & Short “The New Industrial Engineering”(1990)

It capabilities impacts2
IT Capabilities & Impacts

  • Knowledge management:allows capture, dissemination of knowledge, expertise

  • Tracking:allows detailed tracking of task status, inputs, outputs

  • Disintermediation:connects parties who otherwise depend on an intermediary


Source: Davenport & Short “The New Industrial Engineering”(1990)

System development process
System Development Process

  • Systems analysis

  • System design

  • Programming

  • Testing

  • Conversion

  • Production & maintenance


Systems analysis
Systems Analysis

  • Analysis of problem to be solved with an information system

  • Feasibility study: can problem be solved within constraints?

  • The system to be analyzed is the business system.


Systems analysis feasibility
Systems Analysis: Feasibility

  • Technical:assess hardware, software, technical resources

  • Economic: will benefits outweigh costs

  • Operational:is solution desirable within existing conditions?

  • Information requirements:detailed statement of new system needs


Role of end users
Role Of End Users

  • Users drive systems effort

  • Must have sufficient control to ensure system reflects business priorities, needs

  • Functional users drive system needs

  • Most of the projects fail because of user resistance

Completing system development process
Completing System Development Process

  • Programming:translating needs to program code

  • Testing:does system produce desired results?

  • Assess the success of the system (must know the goals)


Managing change
Managing Change

  • User involvement & influence

  • Management support

  • Level of complexity & risk

    • Project size

    • Project structure

    • Experience with technology


Managing implementation
Managing Implementation

  • Increase user involvement

  • Detect, overcome user resistance, counter implementation

  • Control risk factors

  • Employ ergonomics



Interaction of people and machines. The easier the task, the higher the acceptance

  • Work environment

  • Design of jobs

  • Health issues

  • End-user interface of info system


Scoring model factor rating
Scoring Model / Factor Rating:

  • Identify desirable features

  • Provide weights for each (add to 1.00)

  • Look at each alternative:

    • Which features are present?

    • To what extent (as an amount)?

    • Score the alternative

Scoring model
Scoring Model:

  • Rank-order the alternatives

  • Select highest ranked option