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Knowledge Objectives. Explain what human resource management involves. Identify and briefly explain the steps in employee selection and performance appraisal. Explain how managers can be more effective interviewers.

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Knowledge Objectives

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Knowledge Objectives

  • Explain what human resource management involves.

  • Identify and briefly explain the steps in employee selection and performance appraisal.

  • Explain how managers can be more effective interviewers.

  • Identify protected classes and the basis for a claim of disparate treatment or disparate impact


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Human Resource Strategy: A People-Centered Approach

  • Human Resource Management (HRM)

    • The proactive acquisition, retention, and development of human capital necessary to build and support organizational capabilities.

  • Human Capital

    • All present and future workforce participants who need to develop to their full potential as valuable assets to organizations.


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Human Resource Strategy: A People-Centered Approach

  • Recruitment and Selection

    • “Getting the right people on the bus.”

    • Recruiting for diversity

      • Goal is to generate a pool of qualified applicants through many different sources that are demographically representative of the population at large.

    • Networking appears to be the most successful method for job seekers.


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Human Resource Strategy: A People-Centered Approach

  • The Selection Process: An Overview

    • Steps in the PROCEED model

      • Prepare

      • Review

      • Organize

      • Conduct

      • Evaluate

      • Exchange

      • Decide


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Human Resource Strategy: A People-Centered Approach

  • Job analysis

    • The process of identifying basic task and skill requirements for a specific job by studying superior performers.

  • Job description

    • A concise document that outlines the role expectations and skill requirements for a specific job.


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Recruitment and Selection

  • Employment Selection Tests

    • Any procedures used in the employment decision process such as

      • Pencil-and-paper tests

      • Unscored application forms

      • Informal and formal interviews

      • Performance tests

      • Physical, education, or experience requirements

    • Tests must be unbiased, statistically valid, and reliable predictors of job success.


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Recruitment and Selection (cont’d)

  • Effective Interviewing

    • Interviews are the most common selection tool.

    • Shortcomings of unstructured interviews

      • Highly susceptible to distortion and bias.

      • Highly susceptible to legal attack.

      • Legally indefensible if contested.

      • Apparent but no real validity.

      • Not totally job-related and possibly invasive of privacy.

      • Highly inconsistent in application as selection tool.

      • Subject to interviewer bias (e.g., cultural bias).

      • No feedback about selection errors.


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Recruitment and Selection (cont’d)

  • Effective Interviewing (cont’d)

    • Structured interviews: a set of job-related questions with standardized answers.

    • Question types used in structured Interviews

      • Situational

      • Job knowledge

      • Job sample simulation

      • Worker requirements

  • Behavioral Interviewing

    • Asking detailed questions about specific behavior in past job-related situations.


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Performance Appraisal

  • Performance Appraisal

    • Evaluating individual job performance as basis for making objective personnel decisions.

  • Making Performance Appraisals Legally Defensible

    • Use job analysis to develop the appraisal system.

    • Check that the appraisal system is behavior-oriented, not trait-oriented.

    • Have evaluators follow specific written instructions when conducting appraisals.

    • Have evaluators review results with the ratees.


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Performance Appraisal (cont’d)

  • Alternative Performance Appraisal Techniques

    • Goal setting (MBO)

    • Graphic rating scales

      • Behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS)

    • Weighted checklists

    • Rankings and comparisons (Forced distribution - most often encountered)

    • Multirater appraisals/360-degree review


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Human Resource Strategy: A People-Centered Approach

  • Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO)

    • EEO and Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964

      • In virtually all aspects of employment, it is unlawful to discriminate on the basis of race, color, sex, religion, age, national origin, disability, or veteran status.

    • Affirmative Action

      • A plan for actively seeking out, employing, and developing the talents of those groups traditionally discriminated against in employment.


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Human Resource Strategy: A People-Centered Approach

  • From Affirmative Action to Managing Diversity

    • The objective is to develop an appreciation of interpersonal differences and to create a dominant heterogeneous culture.

  • Accommodating The Needs of People with Disabilities

    • Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA)

      • Requires employers to make reasonable accommodations to the needs of present and future employees with physical and mental disabilities.


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Contemporary Human Resource Challenges and Problems

  • Discouraging Sexual Harassment

    • Sexual harassment: unwanted attention that creates an offensive or intimidating work environment.

      • Unwanted physical contact

      • Gestures, displays, joking, and language

    • It is the manager’s job to be aware of and to correct cases of harassment. Ignorance of such activity is not a valid legal defense.


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Contemporary Human Resource Challenges and Problems (cont’d)

  • Discouraging Sexual Harassment (cont’d)

    • What can the victim do?

      • Live with it

      • Fight back

      • Complain to higher-ups

      • Find another job

      • Sue their employer


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Contemporary Human Resource Challenges and Problems (cont’d)

  • Discouraging Sexual Harassment (cont’d)

    • What can the organization do?

      • Garner top-management commitment to eliminate sexual harassment.

      • Issue a clear sexual harassment policy statement.

      • Provide appropriate awareness training.

      • Establish a grievance procedure for reporting incidents of harassment.


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