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Fabio Lopez Nunes, Environment & Agricolture board director - Provincia di Monza e della Brianza Lombardy - Italy Greening our infrastructure: example of Dorsale Verde Nord  a green net idea between Milan and Monza Provinces, between Adda and Ticino rivers Biodiversity post-2010 - Biodiversity in a changing world topic 1.2 Implementing policy on the ground: the crucial role of green infrastructure Gand, september 2010 Surface Kmq 1.984,39 Urban land Kmq 626 Agricolture land Kmq 1.187 Woodland Kmq 147 Protected areas Kmq 993 3.869.037 abitants 41% Lombardy population 40% Lombardy enterprises 10% national product

2. The area between North Milan and the south of Monza & Brianza Province is one of the most populated and industrialized regions in Europe. It has a population density of more than 2000 inhabitants per square km and its sprawl exceeds 50 %.

The area is surrounded by the Alps. This has an advantage in terms of landscape variety, climate mitigation, and water availability. However, the lack of air turnover is problematic. The soil is overexploited, and there are a large amount of pollutants trapped in the atmosphere that cannot be disposed of. The map draws NOx distribution in Europe, where the Padana valley is the worst

4. Milan & Monza Provinces sprawl

1936

Milan & Monza Provinces sprawl Now! Ticino River Adda River Milano Monza Monza & Brianza Province, following the lead of Milan, is going to implement a provincial green net project under its Land Coordination Plan.

7. The area turns out to be extremely troublesome for a number of factors:

Excessive population density; The elements constituting the landscape are located in the territory in a haphazard, arbitrary, fragmented way, precluding the creation of a functional environmental system; Agricultural areas are reduced as their owners are financially incentivised to convert the areas into residential zones rather than for quality yield and providing services to the city; The ongoing transformation dynamics are extremely rapid and further increase the problems already mentioned.

Ticino Adda Milano The green net between Adda and Ticino The new challenge is:

9. Environment & Ecology Landscape Agricolture and production Infrastructures Governance

The Dorsale Verde topics:

10. Ecologic – Environmental Topic: Searching for biodiversity conditions through the re-creation of ecologic nets: Floral gametes movements and thus genetic resource; Wildlife shelter; biodiversity safeguard; Nature conservation; Facing human-induced ecosystem simplification; Air quality and particulates capture: increasing of biotic mass; air quality, CO2 cycle – contribute to atmospheric chemical composition, filter action.  Hydrologic and geological aspects (soil and water quality) With regards to soil: soil formation and nutrients recycling; soil protection from water runoff and erosion, ...; water retention and contribution to water flow control/adjustment, ground water recharge, superficial waters self-purification...  Effects on urban microclimate (soil and water quality).

Landscape Topic Valorisation of environmental, historical and pre-existing landscape sites: the DSV is aimed at protecting and increasing the value of visual corridors connected to historic landscape which has evolved over centuries with its own architecture of farmhouses, farmsteads, patrician residencies, rows, rural grids;   Dorsale Verde’s new landscape and connection among existing parks aim to create highly attended public spaces. Construction of a new forest landscape: optimizing forest compensation policies provided in accordance with the Kyoto Protocol and other legal obligations, in order to create forest areas with their own biotic autonomy and ecologic, productive and mitigating functions;   Agricultural Production and Agronomy Topic Urban forest, timber production and environment-oriented biomass production; Urban rural system, multifunctional agriculture space: redefining cultivating practices and objectives by shifting from primary production system (no longer competitive in this context) to a tertiary production system to produce niche and quality products to be sold in the local market; environmental services aimed at improving the landscape and citizen-directed free time and slow food culture (SlowFood Model) services; Sustainable productive sites: degraded urban areas improvement; abandoned productive settlements recovery not only for building market but also to create new open spaces; recovery interventions should concentrate green compensations with a view to shaping the Dorsale Verde, without creating “green islands” surrounded by urban settlements. Infrastructural Topic Dorsale Verde as environmental-ecologic infrastructure and sustainable mobility paths continuity. The Dorsale Verde consists not only of already-existing infrastructure but of new projects as well, such as the Pedemontana east – west highway. The Pedemontana is currently under construction and is located along the green net corridor as there are no other available spaces. As such, the Pedemontana Project includes an environmental compensation structural intervention which constitutes the first step in the ecologic net creation. This intervention costs 100 million euros; one-third of which is assigned to give birth to “stepping-stones” green systems along the Dorsale Verde. Governance Topic Guiding image and local specificities composition: good value as reference for governance - landscape as universal value; Discussion forum and room for sharing policies aimed at the Dorsale Verde project through territorial governance processes; Dialectic to share creation processes.

15. Wildlife as Environmental Quality Indicator

The Green Net project is based on a mathematical model created according to the needs of a guiding species: the dormouse. This species is a good ecologic indicator. Faunal indicator is considered by researchers as the best “sentinel” monitoring environmental quality. Favouring species migration is not an environmentalist’s obsession, but a way to preserve habitat against fragmentation. The more isolated a natural environment is, the more vulnerable it is to external pathogens and the greater the risks of desertification.

Regional Parks (olive green) and local Parks (dark green) Dorsale Geographic Articulation: green net and land resources The Dorsale Verde Nord: A great landscape infrastructure

18. L’articolazione geografica

60 km long, between Adda & Ticino rivers from 3 km to some meters wide (in the main critical passages troughout settlements) a surface area of 30.000 hectares 5 regional Parks (Ticino, Groane, Valle Lambro, Adda Nord, Nord Milano) 19 local parks (PLIS) 102 municipalities (44 Milan Pr. e 58 Monza & Brianza Pr.) Some numbers:

19. Project in action

The project is an articulated infrastructural network: Forestation and parks policies Agricultural and environmental activities with a special attention to landscape recovery Infrastructural works mitigation/compensation Existing works mitigation Landscape requalification New settlement architectural composition in harmony with the environment.

20. The challenge

21. The project is not in opposition to the large infrastructural works which have been already established but aims to cooperate with and complement them in a constructive manner. The project should especially benefit from the already-established infrastructural works by deriving financial resources to support its realization. The first test-case will be the capacity to interact with the Pedemontana Project, an ongoing highway work.

highway greenway River Park River Park Regional Park Local Park G R E E N N E T

An idea is to create a new hill long the highway: to preserve settlements from highway noise and pollution To build a new “natural” landscape To open land to the public use and recreation inside outskirts “jam” and decay The Dorsale Verde can act as a guiding program. Financing this project is difficult in the current economic climate with pressures on state authorities to reduce their debts. Therefore, it is important to make the most of the opportunities afforded by the land through such compensation and participation schemes. Dorsale Verde Nord project is in “chiaroscuro”. It is partly a challenge like Don Quixote’s fight with windmills, Dorsale Verde Nord project is in “chiaroscuro”. It is partly a challenge like Don Quixote’s fight with windmills, though its effectiveness is gaining recognition as demonstrated by the fact that Lombardy Authority is including it in the regional green net. The financial aid for Pedemontana environmental compensation will fund some important works; Villoresi land reclamation channel which flows in the area will serve as leitmotif. In the last few years the Province and the Region have founded several reforestation programs in the areas involved in the Dorsale project. The greatest challenge, however, lies in convincing municipal authorities to protect lands from over-development and to safeguard the efforts that have been made thus far.

28. Thank you for your attention

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