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Internet-Assisted Composition Teaching and Individualized Instructions. Kate Liu, 2001, 3/3 Course: Junior Composition & Conversation URL: Fall http://www.eng.fju.edu.tw/iacd_2000F/junior_com/main.htm Spring http://www.eng.fju.edu.tw/iacd_2001S/junior_comp/. Pros: 1. Its Novelty and funs

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Internet-Assisted Composition Teaching and Individualized Instructions

Kate Liu, 2001, 3/3

Course: Junior Composition & Conversation

URL:Fallhttp://www.eng.fju.edu.tw/iacd_2000F/junior_com/main.htm

Springhttp://www.eng.fju.edu.tw/iacd_2001S/junior_comp/


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Pros: Instructions

1. Its Novelty and funs

2. Its Individualized nature

3. Its opportunities for Learner control

4. Its opportunities for rapid, frequent non-judgment feedback. (Wauschauer 1996)

Cons:

1. Social hierarchy reinforced in students’ different access to the computer.

2. Cold machine vs. Human interactions.

3. Not really individualized; ignoring pyschological and cognitive aspects of individuals’ learning process.

CAI in Second Language Acquistion: Prosand Cons


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My Position Instructions

The dichotomies --

  • between “distance” learning and classroom teaching;

  • between machine and human should be broken and more flexibly combined.

    *Full-Scale asynchronous distance learning is not impossible in a writing class, with a lot of “human” interactions happening online.


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Lam Instructions

Cummins

Chiquito, et al

Identity formation

Transformative pedagogy aligned with promoting collaborative relations of power. Developing Critical awareness of language

Mixed, Multiple and Malleable media (focuses on packaged software but not on the Internet)

Theoretic framework


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My Question Instructions

  • How do we make the Internet/computer flexible or malleable to meet individual instructors’ and students’ need in a writing class?


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Teaching Goals Instructions

  • Besides basic trainings in writing and speaking,

  • Develop students’ abilities in

    1. critical reception/analysis of life in its multiplicity and

    2. active self-constructions and presentation.

  • From offering multiple stimuli to developing students self-learning strategies

  • Problems to overcome:

  • 1. Peer-editing; 2. Resistance to the Internet


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How I Offer Individualized Instructions Instructions

1. Understand the students from

  • their Journals and writings

  • their answers to the questionnaires (pre-teaching, mid-term, final)

  • their choice of topics and websites from those I offered

  • letting them speak in class and via email.

    2. Avoid moral judgment by me or by students themselves.

    3. Allow them time to get used to the Computer/Internet.

    4. Incoporate their interest into in-class activities. e.g. music, fashion.


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Non-Internet Stimuli Instructions

Films, Animations, Role-Play, Music Videos, Commercials, etc.

Focus for discussion:

1. Feedback to students’ writings

2. Error analysis

3. Web Quest

4. Web Site Production Project

Multiple Stimuli & Interactions

Use of the Internet: email, discussion board, online review materials, websites,


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Individualized Instructions + Computer Instructions(1) feedback to their writings

  • Various kinds of feedback at different stages of their writing process (encouragement, scolding, suggestions, corrections)

  • Give correction symbols + questions and comments.

  • The computer helps usu. in the second draft in order to giveclear and timely suggestions to logical and language problems.


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Individualized Instructions + Computer Instructions(1-2) feedback to their writings

  • Electronic feedback:

  • Advantages – 1. Colors can be used for emphasis or distinction between different kinds of comments, 2. clarity, 3. space to give longer comments/discussions,

  • Disadvantages– 1. tied to a computer and losing a sense of freedom in flipping through pages; 2. [sometimes] over-commenting.


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Individualized Instructions + Computer Instructions(1-3) Feedback given by using Wordprocessing software Example 1

追蹤

修訂

for quick comments;

can be messy


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Individualized Instructions + Computer Instructions(1-4) Feedback given thru Wordprocessing software Example 2

  • Sorting out their errors –l


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Individualized Instructions + Computer Instructions(1-5) Feedback given thru Wordprocessing software

  • Example 3:

    1. Marginal comments on the left column,

    2. Longer comments in end note or annotation.


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Individualized Instructions + Computer Instructions(1-6) Feedback given thru Wordprocessing software

  • Example 3:


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Individualized Instructions + Computer Instructions(1-3) feedback to their writings

Exmple 4: Freer Combination


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Individualized Instructions + Computer Instructions(2) Error Analysis in Class

  • Just in Time Approach:

  • Collect the students’ errors to analyze in class.

  • Give students correction symbols and samples errors and ask them to choose similar errors from their groupmates.

  • http://www.eng.fju.edu.tw/etc/errors/symbols.html

  • Computer Use: email, Powerpoint.


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Individualized Instructions + Computer Instructions(3) Web Quest

  • Interest them and offer them choices

  • Design good questions for them to find out answers.

  • Better include both local and foreign websites

  • Discuss the usefulness of websites.

  • Advantages:

  • Develop students’ abilities to explore and choose useful information, and their learning strategies.

  • A variety of updated choices.


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Individualized Instructions + Computer Instructions(3) Web Quest-2 Relevant Links

  • Relevant Links for a course: More is not better.

  • For a databank:

  • Two Examples:

  • http://www.eng.fju.edu.tw/con&com_databank/Links.htm

  • 2) http://www.eng.fju.edu.tw/etc/link/link.htm


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Individualized Instructions + Computer Instructions(4) Web Project: 1. Collaborative writing

  • Procedure of Collaborative Web project:

  • Choosing a topic and planning,

  • Reading the collected work and Structuring,

  • More Revision and writing.

  • Designing and web publishing.

  • Example: http://www.eng.fju.edu.tw/iacd_2000F/junior_com/new.html


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Traditional writing Instructions

Linear development of parts.

Self-Contained. Usu. written for teacher only.(Wauschauer 2000 67)

Web Writing

Inverted Pyramids in Cyberspace (Jakob Nielsen) and interconnected “nodes.”

Written for “public” audience; linkable to other texts.

Can be updated later on.

Individualized Instructions + Computer (4) Web Project: 1-2. Differences between Traditional Writing and Web Writing


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Individualized Instructions + Computer Instructions(4) Web Project: 2. Individual Work

  • with an optional template offered by the teacher.

  • Examples: http://www.eng.fju.edu.tw/con&com_databank/ec-work.html

  • Template: http://www.eng.fju.edu.tw/con&com_databank/sample/format/


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General Suggestions Instructions

  • Clarification of goals

  • Integration of online activities into the syllabus (Krajka).

  • Considering and/or finding ways to solve students’ technical problems.

  • Doing it Step-by-Step and offering demonstration in class.

  • Always learning from and adjusting to students’ different responses.


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Work Cited Instructions

  • “Multiple, Mixed, Malleable Media.” Chiquito, Ana B, et al. In Technology-Enhanced Language Learning. Bush, D. Michael & Robert M. Terry eds. Lincolnwood, IL: National Textbook Company.

  • Cummins, Jim. “Academic Language Learning, Transformative Pedagogy, and Information Technology: Towards a Critical Balance.” TESOL Quarterly 34(2000): 537-48.

  • Krajka, Jarek. “Using the Internet in ESL Writing Instruction.” The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. VI, No. 11, November 2000. http://www.aitech.ac.jp/~iteslj/Techniques/Krajka-WritingUsingNet.html

  • Lam, Wan Shun Eva. “Web-Based Technology as a Resource for Form-Focused Language Learning. “L2 Literacy and the Design of the Self: A Case Study of a Teenager Writing on the Internet.” TESOL Quarterly 34(2000) 457-

  • Murray, Dennis E. “Protean Communication: The Language of Computer-Mediated Communication.” TESOL Quarterly 34(2000) 397-423

  • Nielsen, Jakob. The Alertbox: Current Issues in Web Usability. http://www.useit.com/alertbox/

  • Wauschauer, Mark. “Motivational aspects of using computers for writing and communication.” In M. Warschauer (Ed.), Telecollaboration in foreign language learning (pp. 29-46). Honolulu, HI: Second Language Teaching & Curriculum Center (University of Hawai'i Press). Retrieved Feb 28, 2001 from the World Wide Web: http://www.lll.hawaii.edu/nflrc/NetWorks/NW1/NW01.html

  • ---, et al. Internet for English Teaching. Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, Inc 2000.

  • Recommended website:The Internet TESL Journal http://www.aitech.ac.jp/


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