In-session workshop on means to reach emission reduction targets (Kyoto AWG)
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In-session workshop on means to reach emission reduction targets (Kyoto AWG) Bangkok 1-3 April 2008 Topic 4: Greenhouse gases, sectors and source categories Presentation by Norway. Outline: Methodology and gases LULUCF International aviation and maritime transport.

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In-session workshop on means to reach emission reduction targets (Kyoto AWG) Bangkok 1-3 April 2008 Topic 4: Greenhouse gases, sectors and source categoriesPresentation by Norway

Outline:

  • Methodology and gases

  • LULUCF

  • International aviation and maritime transport


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Estimation, reporting and review guidelines targets (Kyoto AWG)

The guidelines for estimating, reporting and verifying emissions under the KP should be the basis for 2nd commitment period, with relevant modifications

Norway support the inclusion of new GHG gases not covered by the Montreal Protocol, as identified by IPCC AR4 and 2006 IPCC guidelines

Norway also support updating the GWP values according to the new values included in the IPCC AR4, provided sound methodological solutions


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Land-use, land-use change and forestry targets (Kyoto AWG)

The rules for LULUCF are decided upon for the 1st commitment period, and need to be addressed

Norway believes the future LULUCF regime should be more holistic with inclusion of all sources and sinks

The linkage between agriculture and LULUCF should be considered

Norway believes AWG should consider the implications of a possible inclusion of LULUCF activities in Annex A of the KP


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International aviation and maritime transport targets (Kyoto AWG)

The challenge

Deep cuts in emissions will be required to combat climate change

Hence, all sectors must take part in the global effort to reduce emissions

Aviation and shipping are one of the fastest growing sectors with regard to GHG emissions

Aviation and shipping are not covered by commitments under the Kyoto Protocol


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UNFCC, IMO and ICAO targets (Kyoto AWG)

Article 2.2 of the Kyoto Protocol states that Annex I Parties should work through the ICAO and IMO

The issue has been on the agenda of IMO and ICAO for 10 years, but they have not agreed any regulatory framework or mechanism to reduce GHG emissions

There is a need for stronger commitments and leaderships by UNFCCC

There is a need for better co-operation between UNFCCC, IMO and ICAO

Norway believes that emissions from aviation and shipping should be included in a new climate regime


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Progress in IMO targets (Kyoto AWG)

  • IMO adopted an assembly resolution in 2003 on greenhouse gas emissions from shipping

  • Meeting of the Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) aims to identify and develop options in order to make recommendations to IMO Assembly in 2009

  • The Committee will consider:

    • technical, operational and market-based methods for dealing with GHG emissions

  • MEPC meets in London this week.


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Progress in IMO (cont’d) targets (Kyoto AWG)

  • Different options have been proposed and will be discussed at the MEPC meeting

  • As one possible solution Norway has forwarded a proposal for a marked based mechanism, which include:

    • The establishment of a cap on CO2-emissions from shipping,

    • A CO2-charge on all bunkers sold

    • A fund which could be used for adaptation projects in developing countries, CO2-credits and technological development within the sector

  • Possible Ad-hoc meeting in Oslo in June


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Options targets (Kyoto AWG) for a post-2012 regime

  • Message from the on technical workshop in Oslo (2007):

    • The absence of global policies and measures is more due to other political barriers than to technical difficulties

  • We see two main options for a global regime:

    • Country-based approach

    • Sectoral approach

  • We recommend that IMO and/or ICAO are invited to develop mechanisms to secure fulfillment of the targets


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Further discussion under AWG targets (Kyoto AWG)

  • Norway believes a working group should be established

  • The working group could consider, e.g.:

    • Emissions to be included (e.g. consider implications of excluding emissions from transport between LDCs)

    • Remaining methodological issues, including assessments of legal, administrative and institutional questions, data collection, verification, compliance and sanctions

    • Global emission targets for the sector

  • The discussion in the working group could facilitate the further negotiations under both AWG and AWGLCA


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Thank you! targets (Kyoto AWG)


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